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Title: The Forme of Cury

Author: Samuel Pegge

Release Date: May, 2005 [EBook #8102]
[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule]
[This file was first posted on June 15, 2003]
[Date last updated: August 15, 2006]

Edition: 10

Language: Middle English/Latin

Character set encoding: ASCII


Produced by Tobin Richard, Charles Franks, Greg Lindahl,
Cindy Renfrow and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.



Compiled, about A.D. 1390, by the Master-Cooks of King RICHARD II,

Presented afterwards to Queen ELIZABETH, by EDWARD Lord STAFFORD,

And now in the Possession of GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq.

Illustrated with NOTES, And a copious INDEX, or GLOSSARY.

A MANUSCRIPT of the EDITOR, of the same Age and Subject, with other
congruous Matters, are subjoined.

"--ingeniosa gula est." MARTIAL.

TO GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. and Cur. Brit. Mus.


I return your very curious Roll of Cookery, and I trust with some
Interest, not full I confess nor legal, but the utmost which your
Debtor, from the scantiness of his ability, can at present afford.
Indeed, considering your respectable situation in life, and that
diffusive sphere of knowledge and science in which you are acting, it
must be exceedingly difficult for any one, how well furnished soever,
completely to answer your just, or even most moderate demands. I
intreat the favour of you, however, to accept for once this short
payment in lieu of better,

or at least as a public testimony of that profound regard wherewith I


Your affectionate friend,
and most obliged servant,
St. George's day, 1780.





Without beginning _ab ovo_ on a subject so light (a matter of
importance, however, to many a modern Catius or Amasinius), by
investigating the origin of the Art of Cookery, and the nature of it
as practised by the Antediluvians [1]; without dilating on the
several particulars concerning it afterwards amongst the Patriarchs,
as found in the Bible [2], I shall turn myself immediately, and
without further preamble, to a few cursory observations respecting
the Greeks, Romans, Britons, and those other nations, Saxons, Danes,
and Normans, with whom the people of this nation are more closely

The Greeks probably derived something of their skill from the East,
(from the Lydians principally, whose cooks are much celebrated, [3])
and something from Egypt. A few hints concerning Cookery may be
collected from Homer, Aristophanes, Aristotle, &c. but afterwards
they possessed many authors on the subject, as may be seen in
Athenaus [4]. And as Diatetics were esteemed a branch of the study of
medicine, as also they were afterwards [5], so many of those authors
were Physicians; and _the Cook_ was undoubtedly a character of high
reputation at Athens [6].

As to the Romans; they would of course borrow much of their culinary
arts from the Greeks, though the Cook with them, we are told, was one
of the lowest of their slaves [7]. In the latter times, however, they
had many authors on the subject as well as the Greeks, and the
practitioners were men of some Science [8], but, unhappily for us,
their compositions are all lost except that which goes under the name
of Apicius; concerning which work and its author, the prevailing
opinion now seems to be, that it was written about the time of
_Heliogabalus_ [9], by one _Calius_, (whether _Aurelianus_ is not so
certain) and that _Apicius_ is only the title of it [10]. However,
the compilation, though not in any great repute, has been several
times published by learned men.

The Aborigines of Britain, to come nearer home, could have no great
expertness in Cookery, as they had no oil, and we hear nothing of
their butter, they used only sheep and oxen, eating neither hares,
though so greatly esteemed at Rome, nor hens, nor geese, from a
notion of superstition. Nor did they eat fish. There was little corn
in the interior part of the island, but they lived on milk and flesh
[11]; though it is expressly asserted by Strabo that they had no
cheese [12]. The later Britons, however, well knew how to make the
best use of the cow, since, as appears from the laws of _Hoel Dda_,
A.D. 943, this animal was a creature so essential, so common and
useful in Wales, as to be the standard in rating fines, &c. [13].

Hengist, leader of the Saxons, made grand entertainments for king
Vortigern [14], but no particulars have come down to us; and
certainly little exquisite can be expected from a people then so
extremely barbarous as not to be able either to read or write.
'Barbari homines a septentrione, (they are the words of Dr. Lister)
caseo et ferina subcruda victitantes, omnia condimenta adjectiva
respuerunt' [15].

Some have fancied, that as the Danes imported the custom of hard and
deep drinking, so they likewise introduced the practice of
gormandizing, and that this word itself is derived from _Gormund_,
the name of that Danish king whom Alfred the Great persuaded to be
christened, and called Athelstane [16], Now 'tis certain that
Hardicnut stands on record as an egregious glutton [17], but he is
not particularly famous for being a _curious Viander_; 'tis true
again, that the Danes in general indulged excessively in feasts and
entertainments [18], but we have no reason to imagine any elegance
of Cookery to have flourished amongst them. And though Guthrum, the
Danish prince, is in some authors named _Gormundus_ [19]; yet this is
not the right etymology of our English word _Gormandize_, since it is
rather the French _Gourmand_, or the British _Gormod_ [20]. So that

we have little to say as to the Danes.

I shall take the later English and the Normans together, on account
of the intermixture of the two nations after the Conquest, since, as
lord Lyttelton observes, the English accommodated them elves to the
Norman manners, except in point of temperance in eating and drinking,
and communicated to them their own habits of drunkenness and
immoderate feasting [21]. Erasmus also remarks, that the English in
his time were attached to _plentiful and splendid tables_; and the
same is observed by Harrison [22]. As to the Normans, both William I.
and Rufus made grand entertainments [23]; the former was remarkable
for an immense paunch, and withal was so exact, so nice and curious
in his repasts [24], that when his prime favourite William Fitz-
Osberne, who as steward of the household had the charge of the Cury,
served him with the flesh of a crane scarcely half-roasted, he was so
highly exasperated, that he lifted up his fist, and would have
strucken him, had not Eudo, appointed _Dapiser_ immediately after,
warded off the blow [25].

_Dapiser_, by which is usually understood _steward of the king's
household_ [26], was a high officer amongst the Normans; and
_Larderarius_ was another, clergymen then often occupying this post,
and sometimes made bishops from it [27]. He was under the _Dapiser_,
as was likewise the _Cocus Dominica Coquina_, concerning whom, his
assistants and allowances, the _Liber Niger_ may be consulted [28].
It appears further from _Fleta_, that the chief cooks were often
providers, as well as dressers, of victuals [29]. But _Magister
Coquina_, who was an esquire by office, seems to have had the care of
pourveyance, A.D. 1340 [30], and to have nearly corresponded with
our _clerk of the kitchen_, having authority over the cooks [31].
However, the _Magnus Coquus_, _Coquorum Prapositus_, _Coquus Regius_,
and _Grans Queux_, were officers of considerable dignity in the
palaces of princes; and the officers under them, according to Du
Fresne, were in the French court A.D. 1385, much about the time that
our Roll was made, 'Queus, Aideurs, Asteurs, Paiges, Souffleurs,
Enfans, Saussiers de Commun, Saussiers devers le Roy, Sommiers,
Poulliers, Huissiers' [32].

In regard to religious houses, the Cooks of the greater foundations
were officers of consequence, though under the Cellarer [33], and if
he were not a monk, he nevertheless was to enjoy the portion of a
monk [34]. But it appears from Somner, that at Christ Church,
Canterbury, the _Lardyrer_ was the first or chief cook [35]; and this
officer, as we have seen, was often an ecclesiastic. However, the
great Houses had Cooks of different ranks [36]; and manors and
churches [37] were often given _ad cibum_ and _ad victum monachorum_

[38]. A fishing at Lambeth was allotted to that purpose [39].

But whether the Cooks were Monks or not, the _Magistri Coquina_,
Kitcheners, of the monasteries, we may depend upon it, were always
monks; and I think they were mostly ecclesiastics elsewhere: thus
when Cardinal Otto, the Pope's legate, was at Oxford, A. 1238, and
that memorable fray happened between his retinue and the students,
the _Magister Coquorum_ was the Legate's brother, and was there
killed [40]. The reason given in the author, why a person so nearly
allied to the Great Man was assigned to the office, is this, 'Ne
procuraretur aliquid venenorum, quod nimis [i.e. valde] timebat
legatus;' and it is certain that poisoning was but too much in vogue
in these times, both amongst the Italians and the good people of this
island [41]; so that this was a post of signal trust and confidence.
And indeed afterwards, a person was employed to _taste_, or _take
the assaie_, as it was called [42], both of the messes and the water
in the ewer [43], at great tables; but it may be doubted whether a
particular person was appointed to this service, or it was a branch
of the _Sewer's_ and cup-bearer's duty, for I observe, the _Sewer_ is
sometimes called _Pragustator_ [44], and the cup-bearer tastes the
water elsewhere [45]. The religious houses, and their presidents, the
abbots and priors, had their days of _Gala_, as likewise their halls
for strangers, whom, when persons of rank, they often entertained
with splendour and magnificence. And as for the secular clergy,
archbishops and bishops, their feasts, of which we have some upon
record [46], were so superb, that they might vie either with the
regal entertainments, or the pontifical suppers of ancient Rome
(which became even proverbial [47]), and certainly could not be
dressed and set out without a large number of Cooks [48]. In short,
the satirists of the times before, and about the time of, the
Reformation, are continually inveighing against the high-living of
the bishops and clergy; indeed luxury was then carried to such an
extravagant pitch amongst them, that archbishop Cranmer, A. 1541,
found it necessary to bring the secular clergy under some reasonable
regulation in regard to the furnishing of their tables, not excepting
even his own [49].

After this historical deduction of the _Ars coquinaria_, which I
have endeavoured to make as short as possible, it is time to say
something of the Roll which is here given to the public, and the
methods which the Editor has pursued in bringing it to light.

This vellum Roll contains 196 _formula_, or recipes, and belonged
once to the earl of Oxford [50]. The late James West esquire bought
it at the Earl's sale, when a part of his MSS were disposed of; and
on the death of the gentleman last mentioned it came into the hands
of my highly-esteemed friend, the present liberal and most
communicative possessor. It is presumed to be one of the most ancient
remains of the kind now in being, rising as high as the reign of king

Richard II. [51]. However, it is far the largest and most copious
collection of any we have; I speak as to those times. To establish
its authenticity, and even to stamp an additional value upon it, it
is the identical Roll which was presented to queen Elizabeth, in the
28th year of her reign, by lord Stafford's heir, as appears from the
following address, or inscription, at the end of it, in his own
hand writing:

  'Antiquum hoc monumentum oblatum et missum
  est majestati vestra vicesimo septimo die mensis
  Julij, anno regni vestri falicissimi vicesimo viij ab
  humilimo vestro subdito, vestraq majestati fidelissimo
  E. Stafford,
  Hares domus subversa Buckinghamiens.' [52]

The general observations I have to make upon it are these: many
articles, it seems, were in vogue in the fourteenth century, which
are now in a manner obsolete, as cranes, curlews, herons, seals [53],
porpoises, &c. and, on the contrary, we feed on sundry fowls which
are not named either in the Roll, or the Editor's MS. [54] as quails,
rails, teal, woodcocks, snipes, &c. which can scarcely be numbered
among the _small birds_ mentioned 19. 62. 154. [55]. So as to fish,
many species appear at our tables which are not found in the Roll,
trouts, flounders, herrings, &c. [56]. It were easy and obvious to
dilate here on the variations of taste at different periods of time,
and the reader would probably not dislike it; but so many other
particulars demand our attention, that I shall content myself with
observing in general, that whereas a very able _Italian_ critic,
_Latinus Latinius_, passed a sinister and unfavourable censure on
certain seemingly strange medlies, disgusting and preposterous messes,
which we meet with in _Apicius_; Dr. _Lister_ very sensibly replies
to his strictures on that head, 'That these messes are not
immediately to be rejected, because they may be displeasing to some.
_Plutarch_ testifies, that the ancients disliked _pepper_ and the
sour juice of lemons, insomuch that for a long time they only used
these in their wardrobes for the sake of their agreeable scent, and
yet they are the most wholesome of all fruits. The natives of the
_West Indies_ were no less averse to _salt_; and who would believe
that _hops_ should ever have a place in our common beverage [57], and
that we should ever think of qualifying the sweetness of malt,
through good housewifry, by mixing with it a substance so egregiously
bitter? Most of the _American_ fruits are exceedingly odoriferous,
and therefore are very disgusting at first to us _Europeans_: on the
contrary, our fruits appear insipid to them, for want of odour. There
are a thousand instances of things, would we recollect them all,
which though disagreeable to taste are commonly assumed into our
viands; indeed, _custom_ alone reconciles and adopts sauces which are
even nauseous to the palate. _Latinus Latinius_ therefore very
rashly and absurdly blames _Apicius_, on account of certain
preparations which to him, forsooth, were disrelishing.' [58] In
short it is a known maxim, that _de gustibus non est disputandum_;

And so Horace to the same purpose:

  'Tres mihi conviva prope dissentire videntur,
  Poscentes vario multum diversa palato.
  Quid dem? quid non dem? renuis tu quod jubet alter.
  Quod petis, id sane est invisum acidumque duobus.'
                         Hor. II. Epist. ii.

And our Roll sufficiently verifies the old observation of
Martial--_ingeniosa gula est_.

[Addenda: after _ingeniosa gula est_, add, 'The _Italians_ now eat
many things which we think perfect carrion. _Ray_, Trav. p. 362. 406.
The _French_ eat frogs and snails. The _Tartars_ feast on horse-flesh,
the _Chinese_ on dogs, and meer _Savages_ eat every thing.
_Goldsmith_, Hist. of the Earth, &c. II. p. 347, 348. 395. III. p.
297. IV. p. 112. 121, &c.']

Our Cooks again had great regard to the eye, as well as the taste,
in their compositions; _flourishing_ and _strewing_ are not only
common, but even leaves of trees gilded, or silvered, are used for
ornamenting messes, see No. 175 [59]. As to colours, which perhaps
would chiefly take place in suttleties, blood boiled and fried (which
seems to be something singular) was used for dying black, 13. 141.
saffron for yellow, and sanders for red [60]. Alkenet is also used
for colouring [61], and mulberries [62]; amydon makes white, 68; and
turnesole [63] _pownas_ there, but what this colour is the Editor
professes not to know, unless it be intended for another kind of
yellow, and we should read _jownas_, for _jaulnas_, orange-tawney. It
was for the purpose of gratifying the sight that _sotiltees_ were
introduced at the more solemn feasts. Rabelais has comfits of an
hundred colours.

Cury, as was remarked above, was ever reckoned a branch of the Art
Medical; and here I add, that the verb _curare_ signifies equally to
dress victuals [64], as to cure a distemper; that every body has
heard of _Doctor Diet, kitchen physick_, &c. while a numerous band of
medical authors have written _de cibis et alimentis_, and have always
classed diet among the _non-naturals_; so they call them, but with
what propriety they best know. Hence Junius '[Greek: Diaita] Gracis
est victus, ac speciatim certa victus ratio, qualis a _Medicis_ ad
tuendam valetudinem prascribitur [65].' Our Cooks expressly tell us,
in their proem, that their work was compiled 'by assent and avysement
of maisters of phisik and of philosophie that dwelliid in his [the
King's] court' where _physik_ is used in the sense of medecine,

_physicus_ being applied to persons prosessing the Art of Healing
long before the 14th century [66], as implying _such_ knowledge and
skill in all kinds of natural substances, constituting the _materia
medica_, as was necessiary for them in practice. At the end of the
Editor's MS. is written this rhyme,

  Explicit coquina que est optima medicina [67].

There is much relative to eatables in the _Schola Salernitana_; and
we find it ordered, that a physcian should over-see the young
prince's wet-nurse at every meal, to inspect her meat and drink [68].

But after all the avysement of physicians and philosophers, our
processes do not appear by any means to be well calculated for the
benefit of recipients, but rather inimical to them. Many of them are
so highly seasoned, are such strange and heterogeneous compositions,
meer olios and gallimawfreys, that they seem removed as far as
possible from the intention of contributing to health; indeed the
messes are so redundant and complex, that in regard to herbs, in No.
6, no less than ten are used, where we should now be content with two
or three: and so the sallad, No. 76, consists of no less than 14
ingredients. The physicians appear only to have taken care that
nothing directly noxious was suffered to enter the forms. However, in
the Editor's MS. No. 11, there is a prescription for making a _colys_,
I presume a _cullis_, or Invigorating broth; for which see Dodsley's
Old Plays, vol. II. 124. vol. V. 148. vol. VI. 355. and the several
plays mentioned in a note to the first mentioned passage in the Edit.
1780 [69].

I observe further, in regard to this point, that the quantities of
things are seldom specified [70], but are too much left to the taste
and judgement of the cook, if he should happen to be rash and
inconsiderate, or of a bad and undistinguishing taste, was capable of
doing much harm to the guests, to invalids especially.

Though the cooks at Rome, as has been already noted, were amongst the
lowest slaves, yet it was not so more anciently; Sarah and Rebecca
cook, and so do Patroclus and Automedon in the ninth Iliad. It were
to be wished indeed, that the Reader could be made acquainted with
the names of our _master-cooks_, but it is not in the power of the
Editor to gratify him in that; this, however, he may be assured of,
that as the Art was of consequence in the reign of Richard, a prince
renowned and celebrated in the Roll [71], for the splendor and
elegance of his table, they must have been persons of no
inconsiderable rank: the king's first and second cooks are now
esquires by their office, and there is all the reason in the world to
believe they were of equal dignity heretofore [72]. To say a word of
king _Richard_: he is said in the proeme to have been 'acounted the
best and ryallest vyaund [curioso in eating] of all esten kynges.'
This, however, must rest upon the testimony of our cooks, since it
does not appear otherwise by the suffrage of history, that he was
particularly remarkable for his niceness and delicacy in eating, like
Heliogabalus, whose favourite dishes are said to have been the
tongues of peacocks and nightingales, and the brains of parrots and
pheasants [73]; or like Sept. Geta, who, according to Jul.
Capitolinus [74], was so curious, so whimsical, as to order the
dishes at his dinners to consist of things which all began with the
same letters. Sardanapalus again as we have it in Athenaus [75], gave
a _pramium_ to any one that invented and served him with some novel
cate; and Sergius Orata built a house at the entrance of the Lucrine
lake, purposely for the pleasure and convenience of eating the
oysters perfectly fresh. Richard II is certainly not represented in
story as resembling any such epicures, or capriccioso's, as these
[76]. It may, however, be fairly presumed, that good living was not
wanting among the luxuries of that effeminate and dissipated reign.

[Addenda: after _ninth Iliad_, add, 'And Dr. _Shaw_ writes, p. 301,
that even now in the East, the greatest prince is not ashamed to
fetch a lamb from his herd and kill it, whilst the princess is
impatient till she hath prepared her fire and her kettle to dress

[Addenda: after _heretofore_ add, 'we have some good families in
England of the name of _Cook_ or _Coke_. I know not what they may
think; but we may depend upon it, they all originally sprang from
real and professional cooks; and they need not be ashamed of their
extraction, any more than the _Butlers_, _Parkers_, _Spencers_, &c.']

My next observation is, that the messes both in the roll and the
Editor's MS, are chiefly soups, potages, ragouts, hashes, and the
like hotche-potches; entire joints of meat being never _served_, and
animals, whether fish or fowl, seldom brought to table whole, but
hacked and hewed, and cut in pieces or gobbets [77]; the mortar also
was in great request, some messes being actually denominated from it,
as _mortrews_, or _morterelys_ as in the Editor's MS. Now in this
state of things, the general mode of eating must either have been
with the spoon or the fingers; and this perhaps may have been the
reason that spoons became an usual present from gossips to their
god-children at christenings [78]; and that the bason and ewer, for
washing before and after dinner, was introduced, whence the _ewerer_
was a great officer [79], and the _ewery_ is retained at Court to
this day [80]; we meet with _damaske water_ after dinner [81], I
presume, perfumed; and the words _ewer_ &c. plainly come from the
Saxon ee or French eau, _water_.

Thus, to return, in that little anecdote relative to the Conqueror
and William Fitz-Osbern, mentioned above, not the crane, but _the
flesh of the crane_ is said to have been under-roasted. Table, or
case-knives, would be of little use at this time [82], and the art of
carving so perfectly useless, as to be almost unknown. In about a
century afterwards, however, as appears from archbishop Neville's
entertainment, many articles were served whole, and lord Wylloughby
was the carver [83]. So that carving began now to be practised, and
the proper terms devised. Wynken de Worde printed a _Book of
Kervinge_, A. 1508, wherein the said terms are registered [84]. 'The
use of _forks_ at table, says Dr. Percy, did not prevail in England
land till the reign of James I. as we learn from a remarkable passage
in _Coryat_ [85]'; the passage is indeed curious, but too long to be
here transcribed, where brevity is so much in view; wherefore I shall
only add, that forks are not now used in some parts of Spain [86].
But then it may be said, what becomes of the old English hospitality
in this case, the _roast-beef of Old England_, so much talked of? I
answer, these bulky and magnificent dishes must have been the product
of later reigns, perhaps of queen Elizabeth's time, since it is plain
that in the days of Rich. II. our ancestors lived much after the
French fashion. As to hospitality, the households of our Nobles were
immense, officers, retainers, and servants, being entertained almost
without number; but then, as appears from the Northumberland Book,
and afterwards from the household establisliment of the prince of
Wales, A. 1610, the individuals, or at least small parties, had their
_quantum_, or ordinary, served out, where any good oeconomy was kept,
apart to themselves [87]. Again, we find in our Roll, that great
quantities of the respective viands of the hashes, were often made at
once, as No. 17, _Take hennes or conynges_. 24, _Take hares_. 29,
_Take pygges_. And 31, _Take gees_, &c. So that hospitality and
plentiful housekeeping could just as well be maintained this way, as
by the other of cumbrous unwieldy messes, as much as a man could

As the messes and sauces are so complex, and the ingredients
consequently so various, it seems necessary that a word should be
spoken concerning the principal of them, and such as are more
frequently employed, before we pass to our method of proceeding in
the publication.

Butter is little used. 'Tis first mentioned No. 81, and occurs but
rarely after [88]; 'tis found but once in the Editor's MS, where it
is written _boter_. The usual substitutes for it are oil-olive and
lard; the latter is frequently called _grees_, or _grece_, or
_whitegrece_, as No. 18. 193. _Capons in Grease_ occur in Birch's
Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 459, 460. and see Lye in Jun. Etym.
v. _Greasie_. Bishop Patrick has a remarkable passage concerning
this article: 'Though we read of cheese in _Homer_, _Euripides_,
_Theocritus_, and others, yet they never mention _butter_: nor hath
Aristotle a word of it, though he hath sundry observations about
cheese; for butter was not a thing then known among the _Greeks_;
though we see by this and many other places, it was an ancient food
among the eastern people [89].' The Greeks, I presume, used oil
instead of it, and butter in some places of scripture is thought to
mean only cream. [90]

Cheese. See the last article, and what is said of the old Britons
above; as likewise our Glossary.

Ale is applied, No. 113, et alibi; and often in the Ediitor's MS. as
6, 7, &c. It is used instead of wine, No. 22, and sometimes along
with bread in the Editor's MS. [91] Indeed it is a current opinion
that brewing with hops was not introduced here till the reign of king
Henry VIII. [92] _Bere_, however, is mentioned A. 1504. [93]

Wine is common, both red, and white, No. 21. 53. 37. This article
they partly had of their own growth, [94] and partly by importation
from France [95] and Greece [96]. They had also Rhenish [97], and
probably several other sorts. The _vynegreke_ is among the sweet
wines in a MS of Mr. Astle.

Rice. As this grain was but little, if at all, cultivated in England,
it must have been brought from abroad. Whole or ground-rice enters
into a large number of our compositions, and _resmolle_, No. 96, is a
direct preparation of it.

Alkenet. _Anchusa_ is not only used for colouring, but also fried and
yfoundred, 62. yfondyt, 162. i. e. dissolved, or ground. 'Tis thought
to be a species of the _buglos_.

Saffron. Saffrwm, Brit. whence it appears, that this name ran through
most languages. Mr. Weever informs us, that this excellent drug was
brought hither in the time of Edward III. [98] and it may be true;
but still no such quantity could be produced here in the next reign
as to supply that very large consumption which we see made of it in
our Roll, where it occurs not only as an ingredient in the processes,
but also is used for colouring, for flourishing, or garnishing. It
makes a yellow, No. 68, and was imported from Egypt, or Cilicia, or
other parts of the Levant, where the Turks call it Safran, from the
Arabic Zapheran, whence the English, Italians, French, and Germans,
have apparently borrowed their respective names of it. The Romans
were well acquainted with the drug, but did not use it much in the
kitchen [99]. Pere Calmet says, the Hebrews were acquainted with
anise, ginger, saffron, but no other spices [100].

Pynes. There is some difficulty in enucleating the meaning of this
word, though it occurs so often. It is joined with dates, No. 20. 52.
with honey clarified, 63. with powder-fort, saffron, and salt, 161.
with ground dates, raisins, good powder, and salt, 186. and lastly
they are fried, 38. Now the dish here is _morree_, which in the
Editor's MS. 37, is made of mulberries (and no doubt has its name
from them), and yet there are no mulberries in our dish, but pynes,
and therefore I suspect, that mulberries and pynes are the same, and
indeed this fruit has some resemblance to a pynecone. I conceive
_pynnonade_, the dish, No. 51, to be so named from the pynes therein
employed; and quare whether _pyner_ mentioned along with powder-fort,
saffron, and salt, No. 155, as above in No. 161, should not be read
_pynes_. But, after all, we have cones brought hither from Italy full
of nuts, or kernels, which upon roasting come out of their _capsula_,
and are much eaten by the common people, and these perhaps may be the
thing intended.

[Addenda: after _intended_. add, 'See _Ray_, Trav. p. 283. 407. and
_Wright's_ Trav. p. 112.']

Honey was the great and universal sweetner in remote antiquity, and
particularly in this island, where it was the chief constituent of
_mead_ and _metheglin_. It is said, that at this day in _Palestine_
they use honey in the greatest part of their ragouts [101]. Our cooks
had a method of clarifying it, No. 18. 41. which was done by putting
it in a pot with whites of eggs and water, beating them well together;
then setting it over the fire, and boiling it; and when it was ready
to boil over to take it and cool it, No. 59. This I presume is called
_clere honey_, No. 151. And, when honey was so much in use, it
appears from Barnes that _refining_ it was a trade of itself [102].

Sugar, or Sugur [103], was now beginning here to take place of honey;
however, they are used together, No. 67. Sugar came from the Indies,
by way of Damascus and Aleppo, to Venice, Genoa, and Pisa, and from
these last places to us [104]. It is here not only frequently used,
but was of various sorts, as _cypre_, No. 41. 99. 120. named probably
from the isle of Cyprus, whence it might either come directly to us,
or where it had received some improvement by way of refining. There
is mention of _blanch-powder or white sugar_, 132. They, however,
were not the same, for see No. 193. Sugar was clarified sometimes
with wine [105].

Spices. _Species_. They are mentioned in general No. 133, and _whole
spices_, 167, 168. but they are more commonly specified, and are
indeed greatly used, though being imported from abroad, and from so
far as Italy or the Levant (and even there must be dear), some may
wonder at this: but it shouid be considered, that our Roll was
chiefly compiled for the use of noble and princely tables; and the
same may be said of the Editor's MS. The spices came from the same
part of the world, and by the same route, as sugar did. The _spicery_
was an ancient department at court, and had its proper officers.

As to the particular sorts, these are,

Cinamon. _Canell_. 14. 191. _Canel_, Editor's MS. 10. _Kanell_, ibid.
32. is the Italian _Canella_. See Chaucer. We have the flour or
powder, No. 20. 62. See Wiclif. It is not once mentioned in Apicius.

Macys, 14. 121. Editor's MS. 10. _Maces_, 134. Editor's MS. 27. They
are used whole, No. 158. and are always expressed plurally, though we
now use the singular, _mace_. See Junii Etym.

Cloves. No. 20. Dishes are flourished with them, 22. 158. Editor's MS.
10. 27. where we have _clowys gylofres_, as in our Roll, No. 104.
_Powdour gylofre_ occurs 65. 191. Chaucer has _clowe_ in the singular,
and see him v. Clove-gelofer.

Galyngal, 30. and elsewhere. Galangal, the long rooted cyperus [106],
is a warm cardiac and cephalic. It is used in powder, 30. 47. and was
the chief ingredient in _galentine_, which, I think, took its name
from it.

Pepper. It appears from Pliny that this pungent, warm seasoning, so
much in esteem at Rome [107], came from the East Indies [108], and,
as we may suppose, by way of Alexandria. We obtained it no doubt, in
the 14th century, from the same quarter, though not exactly by the
same route, but by Venice or Genoa. It is used both whole, No. 35,
and in powder, No. 83. And long-pepper occurs, if we read the place
rightly, in No. 191.

Ginger, gyngyn. 64. 136. alibi. Powder is used, 17. 20. alibi. and
Rabelais IV. c. 59. the white powder, 131. and it is the name of a
mess, 139. quare whether _gyngyn_ is not misread for _gyngyr_, for
see Junii Etym. The Romans had their ginger from Troglodytica [109].

Cubebs, 64. 121. are a warm spicy grain from the east.

Grains of Paradice, or _de parys_, 137. [110] are the greater

Noix muscadez, 191. nutmegs.

The caraway is once mentioned, No. 53. and was an exotic from _Caria_,
whence, according to Mr. Lye, it took its name: 'sunt semina, inquit,
_carri_ vel _carrei_, sic dicti a Caria, ubi copiosissime nascitur

Powder-douce, which occurs so often, has been thought by some, who
have just peeped into our Roll, to be the same as sugar, and only a
different name for it; but they are plainly mistaken, as is evident
from 47. 51. 164. 165. where they are mentioned together as different
things. In short, I take powder-douce to be either powder of
galyngal, for see Editor's MS II. 20. 24, or a compound made of
sundry aromatic spices ground or beaten small, and kept always ready
at hand in some proper receptacle. It is otherwise termed _good
powders_, 83. 130. and in Editor's MS 17. 37. 38 [112]. or _powder_
simply, No. 169, 170. _White powder-douce_ occurs No. 51, which seems
to be the same as blanch-powder, 132. 193. called _blaynshe powder_,
and bought ready prepared, in Northumb. Book, p. 19. It is sometimes
used with powder-fort, 38. 156. for which see the next and last

Powder-fort, 10. 11. seems to be a mixture likewise of the warmer
spices, pepper, ginger, &c. pulverized: hence we have _powder-fort of
gynger, other of canel_, 14. It is called _strong powder_, 22. and
perhaps may sometimes be intended by _good powders_. If you will
suppose it to be kept ready prepared by the vender, it may be the
_powder-marchant_, 113. 118. found joined in two places with powder-
douce. This Speght says is what gingerbread is made of; but Skinner
disapproves this explanation, yet, says Mr. Urry, gives none of his

After thus travelling through the most material and most used
ingredients, the _spykenard de spayn_ occurring only once, I shall
beg leave to offer a few words on the nature, and in favour of the
present publication, and the method employed in the prosecution of it.

[Illustration: Take e chese and of flessh of capouns, or of hennes
& hakke smal and grynde hem smale inn a morter, take mylke of
almandes with e broth of freysh beef. oer freysh flessh, & put the
flessh in e mylke oer in the broth and set hem to e fyre, & alye
hem with flour of ryse, or gastbon, or amydoun as chargeaunt as e
blank desire, & with zolks of ayren and safroun for to make hit zelow,
and when it is dressit in dysshes with blank desires; styk aboue
clowes de gilofre, & strawe powdour of galyugale above, and serue it

The common language of the _formula_, though old and obsolete, as
naturally may be expected from the age of the MS, has no other
difficulty in it but what may easily be overcome by a small degree of
practice and application [113]: however, for the further illustration
of this matter, and the satisfaction of the curious, a _fac simile_
of one of the recipes is represented in the annexed plate. If here
and there a hard and uncouth term or expression may occur, so as to
stop or embarrass the less expert, pains have been taken to explain
them, either in the annotations under the text, or in the Index and
Glossary, for we have given it both titles, as intending it should
answer the purpose of both [114]. Now in forming this alphabet, as
it would have been an endless thing to have recourse to all our
glossaries, now so numerous, we have confined ourselves, except
perhaps in some few instances, in which the authorities are always
mentioned, to certain contemporary writers, such as the Editor's MS,
of which we shall speak more particularly hereafter, Chaucer, and
Wiclif; with whom we have associated Junius' Etymologicon Anglicanum.

As the abbreviations of the Roll are here retained, in order to
establish and confirm the age of it, it has been thought proper to
adopt the types which our printer had projected for Domesday-Book,
with which we find that our characters very nearly coincide.

The names of the dishes and sauces have occasioned the greatest
perplexity. These are not only many in number, but are often so
horrid and barbarous, to our ears at least, as to be inveloped in
several instances in almost impenetrable obscurity. Bishop Godwin
complains of this so long ago as 1616 [115]. The _Contents_ prefixed
will exhibit at once a most formidable list of these hideous names
and titles, so that there is no need to report them here. A few of
these terms the Editor humbly hopes he has happily enucleated, but
still, notwithstanding all his labour and pains, the argument is in
itself so abstruse at this distance of time, the helps so few, and
his abilities in this line of knowledge and science so slender and
confined, that he fears he has left the far greater part of the task
for the more sagacious reader to supply: indeed, he has not the least
doubt, but other gentlemen of curiosity in such matters (and this
publication is intended for them alone) will be so happy as to clear
up several difficulties, which appear now to him insuperable. It must
be confessed again, that the Editor may probably have often failed in
those very points, which he fancies and flatters himself to have
elucidated, but this he is willing to leave to the candour of the

Now in regard to the helps I mentioned; there is not much to be
learnt from the Great Inthronization-feast of archbishop Robert
Winchelsea, A. 1295, even if it were his; but I rather think it
belongs to archbishop William Warham, A. 1504 [116]. Some use,
however, has been made of it.

Ralph Bourne was installed abbot of St. Augustine's, near Canterbury,
A. 1309; and William Thorne has inserted a list of provisions bought
for the feast, with their prices, in his Chronicle [117].

The Great Feast at the Inthronization of George Nevile archbishop of
York, 6 Edward IV. is printed by Mr. Hearne [118], and has been of
good service.

Elizabeth, queen of king Henry VII. was crowned A. 1487, and the
messes at the dinner, in two courses, are registered in the late
edition of Leland's Collectenea, A. 1770 [119], and we have profited

The Lenten Inthronization-feast of archbishop William Warham, A. 1504
[120], given us at large by Mr. Hearne [121], has been also consulted.

There is a large catalogue of viands in Rabelais, lib. iv. cap. 59.
60. And the English translation of Mr. Ozell affording little
information, I had recourse to the French original, but not to much
more advantage.

There is also a Royal Feast at the wedding of the earl of Devonshire,
in the Harleian Misc. No. 279, and it has not been neglected.

Randle Holme, in his multifarious _Academy of Armory_, has an
alphabet of terms and dishes [122]; but though I have pressed him
into the service, he has not contributed much as to the more
difficult points.

The Antiquarian Repertory, vol. II. p. 211, exhibits an
entertainment of the mayor of Rochester, A. 1460; but there is little
to be learned from thence. The present work was printed before No. 31
of the Antiquarian Repertory, wherein some ancient recipes in Cookery
are published, came to the Editor's hand.

I must not omit my acknowledgments to my learned friend the present
dean of Carlisle, to whom I stand indebted for his useful notes on
the Northumberland-Household Book, as also for the book itself.

Our chief assistance, however, has been drawn from a MS belonging to
the Editor, denoted, when cited, by the signature _MS. Ed._ It is a
vellum miscellany in small quarto, and the part respecting this
subject consists of ninety-one English recipes (or _nyms_) in cookery.
These are disposed into two parts, and are intituled, 'Hic incipiunt
universa servicia tam de carnibus quam de pissibus.' [123] The second
part, relates to the dressing of fish, and other lenten fare, though
forms are also there intermixed which properly belong to flesh-days.
This leads me to observe, that both here, and in the Roll, messes are
sometimes accommodated, by making the necessary alterations, both to
flesh and fish-days. [124] Now, though the subjects of the MS are
various, yet the hand-writing is uniform; and at the end of one of
the tracts is added, 'Explicit massa Compoti, Anno Dni M'lo CCC'mo
octogesimo primo ipso die Felicis et Audacti.' [125], i.e. 30 Aug.
1381, in the reign of Rich. II. The language and orthography accord
perfectly well with this date, and the collection is consequently
contemporary with our Roll, and was made chiefly, though not
altogether, for the use of great tables, as appears from the
_sturgeon_, and the great quantity of venison therein prescribed for.

As this MS is so often referred to in the annotations, glossary, and

in this preface, and is a compilation of the same date, on the
same subject, and in the same language, it has been thought
adviseable to print it, and subjoin it to the Roll; and the rather,
because it really furnishes a considerable enlargement on the
subject, and exhibits many forms unnoticed in the Roll.

To conclude this tedious preliminary detail, though unquestionably a
most necessary part of his duty, the Editor can scarcely forbear
laughing at himself, when he reflects on his past labours, and recollects
those lines of the poet Martial;

  Turpe est difficiles habere nugas,
  Et stultus labor est ineptiarum. II. 86.

and that possibly mesdames _Carter_ and _Raffald_, with twenty others,
might have far better acquitted themselves in the administration of
this province, than he has done. He has this comfort and satisfaction,
however, that he has done his best; and that some considerable
names amongst the learned, Humelbergius, Torinus, Barthius, our
countryman Dr. Lister, Almeloveen, and others, have bestowed no less
pains in illustrating an author on the same subject, and scarcely of
more importance, the _Pseudo-Apicius_.

[1] If, according to Petavius and Le Clerc, the world was created in
    autumn, when the fruits of the earth were both plentiful and in the
    highest perfection, the first man had little occasion for much
    culinary  knowledge; roasting or boiling the cruder productions, with
    modes of preserving those which were better ripened, seem to be all
    that was necessary for him in the way of _Cury_, And even after he
    was displaced from Paradise, I conceive, as many others do, he was
    not permitted the use of animal food [Gen. i. 29.]; but that this was
    indulged to us, by an enlargement of our charter, after the Flood,
    Gen. ix, 3. But, without wading any further in the argument here, the
    reader is referred to Gen. ii. 8. seq. iii. 17, seq. 23.

    [Addenda: add 'vi. 22. where _Noah_ and the beasts are to live on the
    same food.']
[2] Genesis xviii. xxvii. Though their best repasts, from the
    politeness of the times, were called by the simple names of _Bread_,
    or a _Morsel of bread_, yet they were not unacquainted with modes of
    dressing flesh, boiling, roasting, baking; nor with sauce, or
    seasoning, as salt and oil, and perhaps some aromatic herbs. Calmet v.
    Meats and Eating, and qu. of honey and cream, ibid.
[3] Athenaus, lib. xii. cap. 3.
[4] Athenaus, lib. xii. cap. 3. et Cafaubon. See also Lister ad
    Apicium, praf. p. ix. Jungerm. ad Jul. Polluccm, lib. vi. c. 10.
[5] See below. 'Tamen uterque [Torinus et Humelbergius] hac scripta
    [i, e. Apicii] ad medicinam vendicarunt.' Lister, praf. p. iv. viii.
[6] Athenaaus, p. 519. 660.
[7] Priv. Life of the Romans, p. 171. Lister's Pras, p. iii, but Ter.
    An, i. 1. Casaub. ad Jul. Capitolin. cap. 5.
[8] Casaub. ad Capitolin. l. c.
[9] Lister's Pras. p. ii. vi. xii.
[10] Fabric. Bibl. Lat. tom. II. p. 794. Hence Dr. Bentley ad Hor. ii.
     ferm. 8. 29. stiles it _Pseudapicius_. Vide Listerum, p. iv.
[11] Casar de B. G. v. S 10.
[12] Strabo, lib. iv. p. 200. Pegge's Essay on Coins of Cunob, p. 95.
[13] Archaologia, iv. p. 61. Godwin, de Prasul. p. 596, seq.
[14] Malmsb. p. 9. Galfr. Mon. vi. 12.
[15] Lister. ad Apic. p. xi. where see more to the same purpose.
[16] Spelm. Life of Alfred, p. 66. Drake, Eboracum. Append, p. civ.
[17] Speed's History.
[18] Mons. Mallet, cap. 12.
[19] Wilkins, Concil. I. p. 204. Drake, Ebor. p. 316. Append, p. civ.
[20] Menage, Orig. v. Gourmand.
[21] Lord Lyttelton, Hist. of H. II. vol. iii. p. 49.
[22] Harrison, Descript. of Britain, p. 165, 166.
[23] Stow, p. 102. 128.
[24] Lord Lyttelton observes, that the Normans were delicate in their
     food, but without excess. Life of Hen. II. vol. III. p. 47.
[25] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 109. Henry II. served to his son. Lord
     Lyttelton, IV. p. 298.
[26] Godwin de Prasul. p. 695, renders _Carver_ by _Dapiser_, but
     this I cannot approve. See Thoroton. p. 23. 28. Dugd. Bar. I. p. 441.
     620. 109. Lib. Nig. p. 342. Kennet, Par. Ant. p. 119. And, to name no
     more, Spelm. in voce. The _Carver_ was an officer inferior to the
     _Dapiser_, or _Steward_, and even under his control. Vide Lel.
     Collect. VI. p. 2. And yet I find Sir Walter Manny when young was
     carver to Philippa queen of king Edward III. Barnes Hist. of E. III.
     p. 111. The _Steward_ had the name of _Dapiser_, I apprehend, from
     serving up the first dish. V. supra.
[27] Sim. Dunelm. col. 227. Hoveden, p. 469. Malms. de Pont. p. 286.
[28] Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, p. 347.
[29] Fleta, II. cap. 75.
[30] Du Fresne, v. Magister.
[31] Du Fresne, ibid.
[32] Du Fresne, v. Coquus. The curious may compare this List with Lib.
     Nig. p. 347.
[33] In Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36. they are under the
     _Magister Coquina_, whose office it was to purvey; and there again
     the chief cooks are proveditors; different usages might prevail at
     different times and places. But what is remarkable, the
     _Coquinarius_, or Kitchener, which seems to answer to _Magister
     Coquina_, is placed before the Cellarer in Tanner's Notitia, p. xxx.
     but this may be accidental.
[34] Du Fresne, v. Coquus.
[35] Somner, Append. p. 36.
[36] Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36.
[37] Somner, p. 41.
[38] Somner, p. 36, 37, 39, sapius.
[39] Somner, l. c.
[40] M. Paris, p4. 69.
[41] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 45. Stow, p. 184. M. Paris, p. 377. 517. M.

     Westm. p. 364.
[42] Lel. Collectan. VI. p. 7. seq.
[43] Ibid. p. 9. 13.
[44] Compare Leland, p. 3. with Godwin de Prasul. p. 695. and so
     Junius in Etymol. v. Sewer.
[45] Leland, p. 8, 9. There are now _two yeomen of the mouth_ in the
     king's household.
[46] That of George Neville, archbishop of York, 6 Edw. IV. and that
     of William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 1504. These were
     both of them inthronization feasts. Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2 and
     16 of Appendix. They were wont _minuere sanguinem_ after these superb
     entertainments, p. 32.
[47] Hor. II. Od. xiv. 28. where see Mons. Dacier.
[48] Sixty-two were employed by archbishop Neville. And the hire of
     cooks at archbishop Warham's feast came to 23 l. 6 s. 8 d.
[49] Strype, Life of Cranmer, p. 451, or Lel. Coll. ut supra, p. 38.
     Sumptuary laws in regard to eating were not unknown in ancient Rome.
     Erasm. Colloq. p. 81. ed. Schrev. nor here formerly, see Lel. Coll.
     VI. p. 36. for 5 Ed. II.
[50] I presume it may be the same Roll which Mr. Hearne mentions  in
     his Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, I. p. 346. See also three different letters
     of his to the earl of Oxford, in the Brit. Mus. in the second of
     which he stiles the Roll _a piece of antiquity, and a very great
     rarity indeed_. Harl. MSS. No. 7523.
[51] See the Proem.
[52] This lord was grandson of Edward duke of Bucks, beheaded A. 1521,
     whose son Henry was restored in blood; and this Edward, the grandson,
     born about 1571, might be 14 or 15 years old when he presented the
     Roll to the Queen.
[53] Mr. Topham's MS. has _socas_ among the fish; and see archbishop
     Nevil's Feast, 6 E. IV. to be mentioned below.
[54] Of which see an account below.
[55] See Northumb. Book, p. 107, and Notes.
[56] As to carps, they were unknown in England t. R. II. Fulier,
     Worth. in Sussex, p. 98. 113. Stow, Hist. 1038.
[57] The Italians still call the hop _cattiva erba_. There was a
     petition against them t. H. VI. Fuller, Worth. p. 317, &c. Evelyn,
     Sylva, p. 201. 469. ed. Hunter.
[58] Lister, Praf. ad Apicium, p. xi.
[59] So we have _lozengs of golde_. Lel. Collect. IV. p. 227. and a
     wild boar's head _gylt_, p. 294. A peacock with _gylt neb_. VI. p. 6.
     _Leche Lambart gylt_, ibid.
[60] No. 68. 20. 58. See my friend Dr. Percy on the Northumberland-
     Book, p. 415. and MS Ed. 34.
[61] No. 47. 51. 84.

[62] No. 93. 132. MS Ed. 37.
[63] Perhaps Turmerick. See ad loc.
[64] Ter. Andr. I. 1. where Donatus and Mad. Dacier explain it of
     Cooking. Mr. Hearne, in describing our Roll, see above, p. xi, by an
     unaccountable mistake, read _Fary_ instead of _Cury_, the plain
     reading of the MS.
[65] Junii Etym. v. Diet.
[66] Reginaldus Phisicus. M. Paris, p. 410. 412. 573. 764. Et in Vit.
     p. 94. 103. Chaucer's _Medicus_ is a doctor of phisick, p.4. V. Junii
     Etym. voce Physician. For later times, v. J. Rossus, p. 93.
[67] That of Donatus is modest 'Culina medicina famulacrix est.'
[68] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 183. 'Diod. Siculus refert primos Agypti
     Reges victum quotidianum omnino sumpsisse ex medicorum prascripto.'
     Lister ad Apic. p. ix.
[69] See also Lylie's Euphues, p. 282. Cavendish, Life of Wolsey,
     p. 151, where we have _callis_, male; Cole's and Lyttleton's Dict. and
     Junii Etymolog. v. Collice.
[70] See however, No. 191, and Editor's MS II. 7.
[71] Vide the proeme.
[72] See above.
[73] Univ. Hist. XV. p. 352. 'Asopus pater linguas avium humana
     vocales lingua canavit; filius margaritas.' Lister ad Apicium, p. vii.
[74] Jul. Capitolinus, c. 5.
[75] Athenaus, lib. xii. c. 7. Something of the same kind is related
     of Heliogabalus, Lister Praf. ad Apic. p. vii.
[76] To omit the paps of a pregnant sow, Hor. I. Ep. xv. 40. where
     see Mons. Dacier; Dr. Fuller relates, that the tongue of carps were
     accounted by the ancient Roman palate-men most delicious meat. Worth.
     in Sussex. See other instances of extravagant Roman luxury in
     Lister's Praf. to Apicius, p. vii.
[77] See, however, No. 33, 34, 35, 146.

     [Addenda: add 'reflect on the Spanish _Olio_ or _Olla podrida_, and
     the French fricassee.']
[78] The king, in Shakespeare, Hen. VIII. act iv. sc. 2. and 3. calls
     the gifts of the sponsors, _spoons_. These were usually gilt, and,
     the figures of the apostles being in general carved on them, were
     called _apostle spoons_. See Mr. Steevens's note in Ed. 1778, vol.
     VII. p. 312, also Gent. Mag. 1768, p. 426.
[79] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 328. VI. p. 2.
[80] See Dr. Percy's curious notes on the Northumb. Book, p. 417.
[81] Ibid. VI. p. 5. 18.
[82] They were not very common at table among the Greeks. Casaub. ad
     Athenaum, col. 278. but see Lel. Coll. VI. p. 7.
[83] Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2. Archbishop Warham also had his
     carver, ibid. p. 18. See also, IV. p. 236. 240. He was a great
     officer. Northumb. Book, p. 445.
[84] Ames, Typ. Ant. p. 90. The terms may also be seen in Rand. Holme
     III. p. 78.
[85] Dr. Percy, 1. c.
[86] Thicknesse, Travels, p., 260.
[87] Dr. Birch, Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 457. seq.
[88] No. 91, 92. 160.
[89] Bishop Patrick on Genesis xviii. 8.
[90] Calmer, v. Butter. So Judges iv, 19. compared with v. 25.
[91] Ib. No. 13, 14, 15.
[92] Stow, Hist. p. 1038.
[93] Lel. Coll. VI. p. 30. and see Dr. Percy on Northumb. Book, p.
[94] Archaologia, I. p. 319. Ill, p. 53.
[95] Barrington's Observ. on Statutes, p. 209. 252. Edit. 3d.
     Archaolog.  I. p. 330. Fitz-Stephen, p. 33. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 14.
     Northumb. Book, p. 6. and notes.
[96] No. 20. 64. 99.
[97] No. 99.
[98] Fun. Mon. p. 624
[99] Dr. Lister, Praf. ad Apicium, p. xii.
[100] Calmet. Dict. v. Eating.
[101] Calmet. Dict. v. Meats.
[102] Barnes, Hist. of E. III. p. 111.
[103] No. 70, Editor's MS. 17. alibi.
[104] Moll, Geogr. II. p. 130. Harris, Coll. of Voyages, I. p. 874.
      Ed. Campbell.
[105] No. 20. 148.
[106] Glossary to Chaucer. See the Northumb. Book, p. 415 and 19.
      also Quincy's Dispens. and Brookes's Nat. Hist. of Vegetables.
[107] Lister, Praf. ad Apicium, p. xii.
[108] Plinius, Nat. Hist. XII. cap. 7.
[109] Bochart. III. col. 332.
[110] See our Gloss. voce Greynes.
[111] Lye, in Junii Etymolog.
[112] But see the next article.
[113] Doing, hewing, hacking, grinding, kerving, &c. are easily
[114] By combining the Index and Glossary together, we have had an
      opportunity of elucidating some terms more at large than could
      conveniently be done in the notes. We have also cast the Index to the
      Roll, and that to the Editor's MS, into one alphabet; distinguishing,
      however, the latter from the former.
[115] Godwin de Prasul. p. 684.
[116] In Dr. Drake's edition of archbishop Parker, p. lxiii. it is
      given to archbishop Winchelsea: but see Mr. Battely's Append. to
      _Cantuaria Sacra_, p. 27. or the Archaologia, I. p. 330. and Leland's
      Collectanea, VI. p. 30. where it is again printed, and more at large,
      and ascribed to Warham.
[117] Thorne, Chron. inter X Script. Col. 2010. or Lel. Collect. VI.
      p. 34. Ed. 1770.
[118] Leland, Collect. VI. p. 2. See also Randle Holme, III. p. 77.
      Bishop Godwin de Prasul. p. 695. Ed. Richardson; where there are some
      considerable variations in the messes or services, and he and the
      Roll in Leland will correct one another.
[119] Vol. IV. p. 226.
[120] See first paragraph before.
[121] Leland's Collect. VI. p. 16.
[122] Holme, Acad. of Armory, III. p. 81.
[123] It is _pissibus_ again in the title to the Second Part.
[124] No. 7. 84. here No. 17. 35. 97.
[125] In the common calendars of our missals and breviaries, the
      latter saint is called _Adauctus_, but in the Kalend. Roman. of Joh.
      Fronto, Paris. 1652, p. 126, he is written _Audactus_, as here; and
      see Martyrolog. Beda, p. 414.



... fome [1] of cury [2] was compiled of the chef Maister Cokes of
kyng Richard the Secunde kyng of .nglond [3] aftir the Conquest. the
which was acounted e [4] best and ryallest vyand [5] of alle
csten .ynges [6] and it was compiled by assent and avysement of
Maisters and [7] phisik [8] and of philosophie at dwellid in his
court. First it techi a man for to make commune potages and commune
meetis for howshold as ey shold be made craftly and holsomly.
Aftirward it techi for to make curious potages & meetes and
sotiltees [9] for alle maner of States bothe hye and lowe. And the
techyng of the forme of making of potages & of meetes bothe of flessh
and of fissh. buth [10] y sette here by noumbre and by ordre. sso is
little table here sewyng [11] wole teche a man with oute taryyng: to
fynde what meete at hym lust for to have.

   or [12] to make gronnden benes . . . . . I.
  For to make drawen benes. . . . . . . . . II.
  for to make grewel forced.. . . . . . . . III.
  Caboches in potage. . . . . . . . . . . . IIII.
  rapes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . . V.
  Eowtes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . VI.
  hebolas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII.
  Gowrdes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII.
  ryse of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX.
  Funges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X.
  Bursen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI.
  Corat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII.
  noumbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII.
  Roobroth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIIII.
  Tredure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV.
  Mounchelet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVI.
  Bukkenade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII.
  Connat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVIII.
  drepee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX.
  Mawmenee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.
  Egurdouce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI.
  Capouns in Conney . . . . . . . . . . . . XXII.
  haares in talbotes. . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII.
  Haares in papdele . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIIII.
  connynges in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXV.
  Connynges in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . XXVI.
  Chykens in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVII.
  filetes in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . . XXVIII.
  Pigges in sawse sawge . . . . . . . . . . XXIX.
  sawse madame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXX.
  Gees in hoggepot. . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXI.
  carnel of pork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXII.
  Chikens in Caudell. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII.
  chikens in hocchee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII.
  For to boyle Fesauntes, Partyches
  Capons and Curlewes . . . . . . . . . . . XXX. V.
  blank manng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVI.
  Blank Dessorre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVII.
  morree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVIII.
  Charlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIX.
  charlot y forced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II.
  Cawdel ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. I.
  iusshell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. III.[13]
  Iusshell enforced . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IIII.
  mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. V.
  Blank mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VI.
  brewet of almony. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VII.
  Peions y stewed . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VIII.
  loseyns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IX.
  Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. X.
  pynnonade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XI.
  Rosee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XII.
  cormarye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIII.
  New noumbles of Deer. . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIIII.
  nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XV.
  Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVI.
  ipynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVII.
  Chyryse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVIII.
  payn Foundewe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIX.
  Crotoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III.
  vyne grace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. I.
  Fonnell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. II.
  douce ame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. III.
  Connynges in Cirypp . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IIII.
  leche lumbard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. V.
  Connynges in clere broth. . . . . . . . . XX.III. VI.
  payn Ragoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VII.
  Lete lardes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VIII.
  furmente with porpeys . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IX.
  Perrey of Pesoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. X.
  pesoun of Almayn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XI.
  Chiches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XII.
  frenche owtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIII.
  Makke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIIII.
  Aquapates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XV.
  Salat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVI.
  fenkel in soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVII.
  Clat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVIII.
  appulmoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIX.
  Slete soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII.
  Letelorye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. I.
  Sowpes Dorry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. II.
  Rapey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. III.
  Sause Sarzyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IIII.
  creme of almanndes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. V.
  Grewel of almandes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VI.
  cawdel of almandes mylk . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VII.
  Iowtes of almannd mylk. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VIII.
  Fygey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX.
  Pochee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. X.
  brewet of ayrenn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XI.
  Macrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XII.
  Tostee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIII.
  Gyndawdry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIIII.
  Erbowle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XV.
  Resmolle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVI.
  vyannde Cipre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVII.
  Vyannde Cipre of Samon. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVIII.
  vyannde Ryal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX.
  Compost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.
  gelee of Fyssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. I.
  Gelee of flessh . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. II.
  Chysanne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. III.
  congur in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IIII.
  Rygh in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. V.
  makerel in sawce. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VI.
  Pykes in brasey . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VII.
  porpeys in broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VIII.
  Ballok broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX.
  eles in brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. X
  Cawdel of Samoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XI.
  plays in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XII.
  For to make Flaumpeyns. . . . . . . . . . C. XIII.
  for to make noumbles in lent. . . . . . . C. XIIII.
  For to make Chawdoun for lent . . . . . . C. XV.
  furmente with porpays . . . . . . . . . . C. XVI.
  Fylettes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . C. XVII.
  veel in buknade . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XVIII.
  Sooles in Cyney . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX.
  tenches in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI.
  Oysters in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. I
  muskels in brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. II
  Oysters in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. III.
  cawdel of muskels . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IIII.
  Mortrews of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. V
  laumpreys in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VI.
  Laumprouns in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VII.
  losyns in Fysshe day. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VIII.
  Sowpes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IX.
  sobre sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. X.
  Colde Brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XI.
  peeres in confyt. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XII.
  Egur douce of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIII.
  Cold Brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIIII.
  Pevorat for Veel and Venysoun . . . . . . XX.VI. XV.
  sawce blaunche for Capouns y sode . . . . XX.VI. XVI.
  Sawce Noyre for Capons y rosted . . . . . XX.VI. XVII.
  Galentyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XVIII.
  Gyngeuer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIX.
  verde sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII.
  Sawce Noyre for mallard . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. I.
  cawdel for Gees . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. II.
  Chawdon for Swannes . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. III.
  sawce Camelyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IIII.
  Lumbard Mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. V.
  Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VI.
  Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VII.
  frytour blaunched . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VIII.
  Frytour of pasturnakes. . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IX.

  frytour of mylke. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. X.
  frytour of Erbes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XI.
  Raisiowls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XII.
  Whyte milates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIII.
  crustardes of flessh. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIIII.
  Mylates of Pork . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XV.
  crustardes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVI.
  Crustardes of erbis on fyssh day. . . . . XX.VII. XVII.
  lesshes fryed in lentoun. . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVIII.
  Wastels y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIX.
  sawge y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII.
  Sawgeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. I.
  cryspes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. II.
  Cryspels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. III.
  Tartee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IIII.
  Tart in Ymbre day . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. V.
  tart de Bry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VI.
  Tart de Brymlent. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VII.
  tartes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VIII.
  Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IX.
  tartes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. X.
  Sambocade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XI.
  Erbolat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XII.
  Nysebek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIII.
  for to make Pom Dorryes. & oer ynges. . XX.VIII. XIIII.
  Cotagres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XV.
  hart rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVI.
  Potews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVII.
  Sachus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVIII.
  Bursews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIX.
  spynoches y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX.
  Benes y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. I.
  russhewses of Fruyt . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. II.
  Daryols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. III.
  Flaumpens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IIII.
  Chewetes on flessh day. . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. V.
  chewetes on fyssh day . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VI.
  Hastletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.XI. VII.
  comadore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VIII.
  Chastletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IX.
  for to make twey pecys of Flesshe
  to fasten to gydre. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. X.
  pur fait y pocras . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XI.
  For to make blank maunnger. . . . . . . . XX.IX. XII.
  for to make Blank Desire. . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIII.
  For to make mawmoune. . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIIII.
  the pety peruaunt . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XV.
  And the pete puant. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XVI.


[1] This is a kind of Preamble to the Roll. A space is left for the
    initial word, intended to be afterwards written in red ink, and
    presumed  to be Eis. _Fome_, the _lineola_ over it being either
    casually omitted, or since obliterated, means _form_, written Foume
    below, and in No. 195.
[2] Cury. Cookery. We have adopted it in the Title. V. Preface.
[3] ynglond. _E_ was intended to be prefixed in red ink. Vide Note [1]
    and [6].
[4] . This Saxon letter with the power of _th_, is used almost
    perpetually  in our Roll and the Editor's Ms. Every one may not have
    adverted to it; but this character is the ground of our present
    abbreviations y'e the, y't that, y's this, &c. the y in these cases
    being evidently only an altered and more modern way of writing .
[5] vyaund. This word is to be understood in the concrete, _quasi_
    vyander, a curious epicure, an _Apicius_. V. Preface.
[6] csten ynges. Christian kings. _K_ being to be inserted afterwards
    (v. note [1] and [3]) in red ink. Chaucer, v. christen.
[7] and. Read _of_.
[8] Phisik. V. Preface.
[9] Sotiltees. Devices in paste, wax, and confectionary ware;
    reviving  now, in some measure, in our grander deserts. V. Index.
[10] buth. _Be_, or _are_. V. Index.
[11] sewing. Following; from the French. Hence our _ensue_ written
     formerly _ensew_. Skelton, p. 144; and _ensiew_, Ames Typ. Ant. p. 9.
[12] F is omitted for the reason given in note 1.
[13] No. XX.II. II. is omitted.


Take benes and dry hem in a nost [2] or in an Ovene and hulle hem
wele and wyndewe [3] out e hulk and wayshe hem clene an do hem to
see in gode broth [4] an ete hem with Bacon.

[1] Gronden Benes. Beans ground (y ground, as No. 27. 53. 105.)
    stript of their hulls. This was a dish of the poorer householder, as
    also is 4 and 5, and some others.
[2] a nost. An ost, or kiln. Vide Gloss. _voce_ Ost.
[3] wyndewe. Winnow.
[4] gode broth. Prepared beforehand.


Take benes and see hem and grynde hem in a morter [1] and drawe hem
up [2] with gode broth an do Oynouns in the broth grete mynced [3] an
do erto and colour it with Safroun and serve it forth.

[1] morter. Mortar.
[2] Footnote f: drawen hem up. Mix them.
[3] Footnote g: grete mynced. Grossly, not too small.


Take grewel and do to the fyre with gode flessh and see it wel. take
the lire [2] of Pork and grynd it smal [3] and drawe the grewel
thurgh a Straynour [4] and colour it wi Safroun and serue [5] forth.

[1] forced, farced, enriched with flesh. Vide Gloss.
[2] lire. Flesh.
[3] grynd it smal. Bruise or beat in a mortar.
[4] stryno'. Strainer.
[5] serue. Serve. Vide Gloss.


Take Caboches and quarter hem and seeth hem in gode broth with
Oynouns y mynced and the whyte of Lekes y slyt and corue smale [2]
and do er to safroun an salt and force it with powdour douce [3].

[1] Caboches. Probably cabbages.
[2] corue smale. Cut small. V. _i corue_ in Gloss.
[3] powdour douce. Sweet aromatic powder. V. Pref.


Take rapus and make hem clene and waissh hem clene. quare hem [2].
parboile hem. take hem up. cast hem in a gode broth and see hem.
mynce Oynouns and cast erto Safroun and salt and messe it forth
with powdour douce. the wise [3] make of Pasturnakes [4] and
skyrwates. [5]

[1] Rapes, or rapus. Turneps.
[2] quare hem. Cut them in _squares_, or small pieces. V. Gloss.
[3] in the wise, _i.e._ in the same manner. _Self_ or _same_, seems
    to be casually omitted. Vide No. 11 and 122.
[4] Pasturnakes, for parsnips or carrots. V. Gloss.
[5] skyrwates, for skirrits or skirwicks.


Take Borage, cool [2]. langdebef [3]. persel [4]. betes. orage [5].
auance [6]. violet [7]. saueray [8]. and fenkel [9]. and whane ey
buth sode; presse hem wel smale. cast hem in gode broth an see hem.
and serue hem forth.

[1] Eowtes. _Lowtes_, No. 88, where, in the process, it is _Rowtes_.
    Quare the meaning, as Roots does not apply to the matter of the
    Recipe. In No. 73 it is written _owtes_.
[2] Cole, or colewort.
[3] Langdebef. Bugloss, buglossum sylvestre. These names all arise
    from a similitude to an ox's tongue. V. Ms. Ed. No. 43.
[4] Persel. Parsley.
[5] orage. Orach, _Atriplex_. Miller, Gard. Dict.
[6] auance. Forte Avens. V. Avens, in Gloss.
[7] The leaves probably, and not the flower.
[8] Savory.
[9] Fenkel. Fennil.


Take Oynouns and erbes and hewe hem small and do es to gode broth.
and aray [2] it as ou didest caboches. If ey be in fyssh day. make
[3] on the same maner [4] with water and oyle. and if it be not in
Lent alye [5] it with zolkes of Eyren [6]. and dresse it forth and
cast er to powdour douce.

[1] Hebolace. Contents, Hebolas; for _Herbolas_, from the herbs used;
    or, if the first letter be omitted (see the Contents), _Chebolas_,
    from the Chibols employed.
[2] aray. Dress, set it out.
[3] make. Dress. Vide Gloss.
[4] maner. manner.
[5] alye. Mix. V. Gloss.
[6] Eyren. Eggs. V. Gloss.


Take young Gowrdes pare hem and kerue [1] hem on pecys. cast hem in
gode broth, and do er to a gode pertye [2] of Oynouns mynced. take
Pork soden. grynd it and alye it er with and wi zolkes of ayrenn.
do er to safroun and salt, and messe it forth with powdour douce.

[1] kerve. Cut.
[2] partye. Party, i.e. quantity.


Take Ryse and waishe hem clene. and do hem in erthen pot with gode

broth and lat hem see wel. afterward take Almaund mylke [2] and do
er to. and colour it wi safroun an salt, an messe forth.

[1] Ryse. Rice. V. Gloss.
[2] Almand mylke. V. Gloss.

FUNGES [1]. X.

Take Funges and pare hem clere and dyce hem [2]. take leke and shred
hym small and do hym to see in gode broth. colour it with safron and
do er inne powdour fort [3].

[1] Funges. Mushrooms.
[2] dyce hem. Cut them in squares. Vide _quare_ in Gloss.
[3] Powdour fort. Vide Preface.


Take the whyte of Lekes. slype hem and shrede hem small. take
Noumbles [2] of swyne and boyle hem in broth and wyne. take hym up
and dresse hem and do the Leke in the broth. see and do the Noumbles
er to make a Lyour [3] of brode blode and vynegre and do er to
Powdour fort see Oynouns mynce hem and do er to. the self wise make
of Pigges.

[1] Bursen. Qu. the etymon.
[2] Noumbles. Entrails. V. Gloss.
[3] Lyo', Lyour. A mixture. Vide _alye_ in Gloss.


Take the Noumbles of Calf. Swyne. or of Shepe. parboile hem and
skerne hem to dyce [2] cast hem in gode broth and do er to erbes.
grynde chyballes [3]. smale y hewe. see it tendre and lye it with
zolkes of eyrenn. do er to verious [4] safroun powdour douce and
salt, and serue it forth.

[1] Corat. Qu.
[2] kerve hem to dyce. V. _quare_ in Gloss.
[3] Chyballes. Chibols, young onions. V. Gloss.
[4] verious. Verjuice.


Take noumbles of Deer oer [1] of oer beest parboile hem kerf hem to
dyce. take the self broth or better. take brede and grynde with the
broth. and temper it [2] up with a gode quantite of vyneger and wyne.
take the oynouns and parboyle hem. and mynce hem smale and do er to.
colour it with blode and do er to powdour fort and salt and boyle it
wele and serue it fort [3].

[1] oer. Other, i.e. or.
[2] temper it. Temper it, i. e. mix it.
[3] fort. Miswritten for _forth_. So again No. 31. 127.


Take the lire of the Deer oer of the Roo parboile it on smale peces.
see it wel half in water and half in wyne. take brede and bray it
wi the self broth and drawe blode er to and lat it seeth to gedre
with powdour fort of gynger oer of canell [2]. and macys [3]. with a
grete porcioun of vineger with Raysouns of Coraunte [4].

[1] Roo. Roe. The Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 53. is very different.
[2] Canell. Cinnamon.
[3] macys. Mace. V. Preface and Gloss.
[4] Raysouns of Coraunte. Currants. V. Gloss.


Take Brede and grate it. make a lyre [2] of rawe ayrenn and do erto
Safroun and powdour douce. and lye it up [3] with gode broth. and
make it as a Cawdel. and do erto a lytel verious.

[1] Tredure. A Cawdle; but quare the etymon. The French _tres dure_
    does not seem to answer.
[2] lyre. Mixture.
[3] lye it up. Mix it.


Take Veel oer Moton and smite it to gobettes see it in gode broth.
cast erto erbes yhewe [2] gode wyne. and a quantite of Oynouns
mynced. Powdour fort and Safroun. and alye it with ayren and verious.
but lat not see after.

[1] Monchelet. _Mounchelet_, Contents.
[2] y hewe. Shred.


Take Hennes [2] oer Conynges [3] oer Veel oer oer Flessh an hewe
hem to gobettes waische it and hit well [4]. grynde Almandes
unblaunched. and drawe hem up with e broth cast er inne raysons of
Corance. sugur. Powdour gyngur erbes ystewed in grees [5]. Oynouns
and Salt. If it is to to [6] thynne. alye it up with flour of ryse
oer with oer thyng and colour it with Safroun.

[1] Bukkenade. Vide No. 118. qu.
[2] Hennes; including, I suppose, chicken and pullets.
[3] Conynges. Coneys, Rabbits.
[4] hit well. This makes no sense, unless _hit_ signifies smite or
[5] Grees. Fat, lard, _grece_. No. 19.
[6] to to. So again, No. 124. To is _too_, v. Gloss. And _too_ is
    found doubled in this manner in _Mirrour for Magistrates_, p. 277.
    371, and other authors.


Take Connes and pare hem. pyke out the best and do hem in a pot of
erthe. do erto whyte grece at he stewe er inne. and lye hem up
with hony clarified and with rawe zolkes [2] and with a lytell
almaund mylke and do erinne powdour fort and Safron. and loke at it
be yleesshed [3],

[1] Connat seems to be a kind of marmalade of connes, or quinces,
    from Fr. _Coing_. Chaucer, v. Coines. Written quinces No. 30.
[2] Yolkes, i. e. of Eggs.
[3] yleesshed. V. Gloss.


Take blanched Almandes grynde hem and temper hem up with gode broth
take Oynouns a grete quantite parboyle hem and frye hem and do erto.
take smale bryddes [2] parboyle hem and do erto Pellydore [3] and
salt. and a lytel grece.

[1] Drepee. Qu.
[2] bryddes. Birds. _Per metathesin; v. R. in Indice_.
[3] Pellydore. Perhaps _pellitory_. _Peletour_, 104.

Mawmenee [1]. XX.

Take a pottel of wyne greke. and ii. pounde of sugur take and
clarifye the sugur with a qantite of wyne an drawe it thurgh a
straynour in to a pot of erthe take flour of Canell [2]. and medle [3]
with sum of the wyne an cast to gydre. take pynes [4] with Dates and
frye hem a litell in grece oer in oyle and cast hem to gydre. take
clowes [5] an flour of canel hool [6] and cast erto. take powdour
gyngur. canel. clower, colour it with saundres a lytel yf hit be nede
cast salt erto. and lat it see; warly [7] with a slowe fyre and not
to thyk [8], take brawn [9] of Capouns yteysed [10]. oer of
Fesauntes teysed small and cast erto.

[1] Vide No. 194, where it is called _Mawmenny_.
[2] Flour of Canell. Powder of Cinamon.
[3] medle. Mix.
[4] pynes. A nut, or fruit. Vide Gloss.
[5] clowes. Cloves.
[6] hool. Whole. How can it be the flour, or powder, if whole? Quare,
    _flower_ of cand for _mace_.
[7] warly. Warily, gently.
[8] not to thyk. So as to be too thick; or perhaps, _not to thicken_.
[9] brawn. Fleshy part. Few Capons are cut now except about Darking
    in Surry; they have been excluded by the turkey, a more magnificent,
    but perhaps not a better fowl.

[10] yteysed, or _teysed_, as afterwards. Pulled in pieces by the
     fingers, called _teezing_ No. 36. This is done now with flesh of
     turkeys, and thought better than mincing. Vide Junius, voce _Tease_.


Take Conynges or Kydde and smyte hem on pecys rawe. and frye hem in
white grece. take raysouns of Coraunce and fry hem take oynouns
parboile hem and hewe hem small and fry hem. take rede wyne suger
with powdour of peper. of gynger of canel. salt. and cast erto. and
lat it see with a gode quantite of white grece an serue it forth.

[1] Egurdouce. The term expresses _piccante dolce_, a mixture of sour
    and sweet; but there is nothing of the former in the composition.
    Vide Gloss.


Take Capons and rost hem right hoot at ey be not half y nouhz and
hewe hem to gobettes and cast hem in a pot, do erto clene broth,
see hem at ey be tendre. take brede and e self broth and drawe it
up yferer [2], take strong Powdour and Safroun and Salt and cast er
to. take ayrenn and see hem harde. take out the zolkes and hewe the
whyte erinne, take the Pot fro e fyre and cast the whyte erinne.
messe the disshes erwith and lay the zolkes hool and flour it with

[1] Concys seems to be a kind of known sauce. V. Gloss.
[2] yfere. Together.


Take Hares and hewe hem to gobettes and see hem with e blode
unwaisshed in broth. and whan ey buth y nowh: cast hem in colde
water. pyke and waisshe hem clene. cole [3] the broth and drawe it
thurgh a straynour. take oer blode and cast in boylyng water see it
and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take Almaundes unblaunched. waisshe
hem and grynde hem and temper it up with the self broth. cast al in a
pot. tak oynouns and parboile hem smyte hem small and cast hem in to
is Pot. cast erinne Powdour fort. vynegur an salt.

[1] Haares, Contents. So again, No. 24.
[2] Talbotes. Ms. Ed. No. 9, _Talbotays_.
[3] Cole. Cool.


Take Hares parboile hem in gode broth. cole the broth and waisshe the
fleyssh. cast azeyn [2] to gydre. take obleys [3] oer wafrouns [4]
in stede of lozeyns [5]. and cowche [6] in dysshes. take powdour
douce and lay on salt the broth and lay onoward [7] an messe forth.

[1] Papdele. Qu.
[2] azeyn. Again.
[3] obleys, called _oblata_; for which see Hearne ad Lib. Nig. I. p.
    344. A kind of Wafer, otherwise called _Nebula_; and is the French
    _oublie, oble_. Leland, Collect. IV. p. 190. 327.
[4] wafrouns. Wafers.
[5] loseyns. Vide Gloss.
[6] cowche. Lay.
[7] onoward. Upon it.


Take Connynges and smyte hem on peces. and see hem in gode broth,
mynce Oynouns and see hem in grece and in gode broth do erto. drawe
a lyre of brede. blode. vynegur and broth do erto with powdour fort.

[1] Cynee. Vide Gloss.


Take Connynges smyte hem to pecys. parboile hem and drawe hem with a
gode broth with almandes blanched and brayed. do erinne sugur and
powdour gynger and boyle it and the flessh erwith. flour it with
sugur and with powdour gynger an serue forth.


Take Chykens and serue hem the same manere and serue forth.


Take fylettes of Pork and rost hem half ynowh smyte hem on pecys.
drawe a lyour of brede and blode. and broth and Vineger. and do
erinne. see it wele. and do erinne powdour an salt an messe it

[1] Fylettes. Fillets.
[2] of Galyntyne. In Galyntyne. Contents, _rectlus_. As for
    _Galentine_, see the Gloss.


Take Pigges yskaldid and quarter hem and see hem in water and salt,
take hem and lat hem kele [2]. take persel sawge. and grynde it with
brede and zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode. temper it up with vyneger sum
what thyk. and, lay the Pygges in a vessell. and the sewe onoward and
serue it forth.

[1] Sawge. Sage. As several of them are to be used, these pigs must
    have been small.
[2] kele. Cool.


Take sawge. persel. ysope. and saueray. quinces. and peeres [1],
garlek and Grapes. and fylle the gees erwith. and sowe the hole at
no grece come out. and roost hem wel. and kepe the grece at fallith
erof. take galytyne and grece and do in a possynet, whan the gees
buth rosted ynowh; take an smyte hem on pecys. and at tat [2] is
withinne and do it in a possynet and put erinne wyne if it be to
thyk. do erto powdour of galyngale. powdour douce and salt and boyle
the sawse and dresse e Gees in disshes and lay e sowe onoward.

[1] Peares. Pears.
[2] that tat, i.e. that that. Vide Gloss.


Take Gees and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem in a Pot do erto half
wyne and half water. and do erto a gode quantite of Oynouns and
erbest. Set it ouere the fyre and couere [2] it fast. make a layour
of brede and blode an lay it erwith. do erto powdour fort and serue
it fort.

[1] Hoggepot. Hodge-podge. _Ochepot_. Ms. Ed. No. 22. French,
    _Hochepot_. Cotgrave. See Junii Enym. v. _Hotch-potch_.
[2] couere. Cover.


Take the brawnn of Swyne. parboile it and grynde it smale and alay it
up with zolkes of ayren. set it ouere [2] the fyre with white Grece
and lat it not see to fast. do erinne Safroun an powdour fort and
messe it forth. and cast erinne powdour douce, and serue it forth.

[1] Carnel, perhaps _Charnel_, from Fr. _Chaire_.
[2] ouere. Over. So again, No. 33.


Take Chikenns and boile hem in gode broth and ramme [2] hem up. enne
take zolkes of ayrenn an e broth and alye it togedre. do erto
powdour of gynger and sugur ynowh safroun and salt. and set it ouere
the fyre withoute boyllyng. and serue the Chykenns hole [3] oer
ybroke and lay e sowe onoward.

[1] Chikens. Contents. So again in the next Recipe.
[2] ramme. Qu. press them close together.
[3] hole. Whole.


Take Chykenns and scald hem. take parsel and sawge withoute eny oere
erbes. take garlec an grapes and stoppe the Chikenns ful and see hem
in gode broth. so at ey may esely be boyled erinne. messe hem an
cast erto powdour dowce.

[1] Hochee. This does not at all answer to the French _Hachis_, or
    our _Hash_; therefore qu.


Take gode broth and do erto the Fowle. and do erto hool peper and
flour of canel a gode quantite and lat hem see with. and messe it
forth. and er cast eron Podour dowce.


Take Capouns and see hem, enne take hem up. take Almandes blaunched.
grynd hem and alay hem up with the same broth. cast the mylk in a pot.
waisshe rys and do erto and lat it see. anne take brawn of Capouns
teere it small and do erto. take white grece sugur and salt and cast
erinne. lat it see. enne messe it forth and florissh it with aneys
in confyt rede oer whyt. and with Almaundes fryed in oyle. and serue
it forth.

[1] Blank Maunger. Very different from ours. Vide Gloss.


Take Almandes blaunched, grynde hem and temper hem up with whyte wyne,
on fleissh day with broth. and cast erinne flour of Rys. oer
amydoun [2], and lye it erwith. take brawn of Capouns yground. take
sugur and salt and cast erto and florissh it with aneys whyte. take
a vessel yholes [3] and put in safroun. and serue it forth.

[1] Blank Dessorre. V. Gloss.
[2] Amydoun. "Fine wheat flour steeped in water, strained and let
    stand to settle, then drained and dried in the sun; used for bread or
    in broths." Cotgrave. Used in No. 68 for colouring white.
[3] yholes. Quare.


Take Almandes blaunched, waisshe hem. grynde hem. and temper hem up
with rede wyne, and alye hem with flour of Rys. do erto Pynes yfryed.
and colour it with saundres. do erto powdour fort and powdour douce

and salt, messe it forth and flour it [2] with aneys confyt whyte.

[1] Morree. Ms. Ed. 37. _murrey_. Ibid. II. 26. _morrey_; probably
    from the mulberries used therein.
[2] flour it. Flourish it.


Take Pork and see it wel. hewe it smale. cast it in a panne. breke
ayrenn and do erto and swyng [2] it wel togyder. do erto Cowe mylke
and Safroun and boile it togyder. salt it & messe it forth.

[1] Charlet; probably from the French, _chair_. Qu. Minced Meat, and
    the next article, Forced Meat.
[2] swyng. Shake, mix.


Take mylke and see it, and swyng erwith zolkes of Ayrenn and do
erto. and powdour of gynger suger. and Safroun and cast erto. take
the Charlet out of the broth and messe it in dysshes, lay the sewe
onoward. flour it with powdour douce. and serue it forth.


Take flour of Payndemayn [2] and gode wyne. and drawe it togydre. do
erto a grete quantite of Sugur cypre. or hony clarified, and do
erto safroun. boile it. and whan it is boiled, alye it up with
zolkes of ayrenn. and do erto salt and messe it forth. and lay eron
sugur and powdour gyngur.

[1] ferry. Quare. We have _Carpe in Ferry_, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21.
[2] Payndemayn. White bread. Chaucer.


Take brede ygrated and ayrenn and swyng it togydre. do erto safroun,
sawge. and salt. & cast broth. erto. boile it & messe it forth.

[1] Jusshell. See also next number. _Jussell_, Ms. Ed. 21, where the
    Recipe is much the same. Lat. _Juscellam_, which occurs in the old
    scholiast on Juvenal iv. 23; and in Apicius, v. 3. Vide Du Fresne, v.
    _Jusselium_ and _Juscellum_, where the composition consists of
    _vinum_, _ova_, and _sagmea_, very different from this. Faber in
    Thesauro cites _Juscellum Gallina_ from Theod. Priscianus.

N.B. No. XX.II. II. is omitted both here and in the Contents.


Take and do erto as to charlet yforced. and serue it forth.

[1] Jusshell enforced. As the _Charlet yforced_ here referred to was
    made of pork, compare No. 40 with No. 39. So in Theod. Priscian we
    have _Jussetlum Gallina_.


Take hennes and Pork and see hem togyder. take the lyre of Hennes
and of the Pork, and hewe it small and grinde it all to doust [2].
take brede ygrated and do erto, and temper it with the self broth
and alye it with zolkes of ayrenn, and cast eron powdour fort, boile
it and do erin powdour of gyngur sugur. safroun and salt. and loke
er it be stondyng [3], and flour it with powdour gynger.

[1] Mortrews. Vide Gloss.
[2] doust. Dust, powder.
[3] stondyng. Stiff, thick.


Take Pork and Hennes and see hem as to fore. bray almandes blaunched,
and temper hem up with the self broth. and alye the fleissh with the
mylke and white flour of Rys. and boile it. & do erin powdour of
gyngur sugar and look at it be stondyng.


Take Conynges or kiddes and hewe hem small on moscels [2] oer on
pecys. parboile hem with the same broth, drawe an almaunde mylke and
do the fleissh erwith, cast erto powdour galyngale & of gynger with
flour of Rys. and colour it wi alkenet. boile it, salt it. & messe
it forth with sugur and powdour douce.

[1] Almony. Almaine, or Germany. _Almany_. Fox, part I. p. 239.
    _Alamanie_. Chron. Sax. p. 242. V. ad No. 71.
[2] moscels. Morsels.


Take peions and stop hem with garlec ypylled and with gode erbes
ihewe. and do hem in an erthen pot. cast erto gode broth and whyte
grece. Powdour fort. safroun verious & salt.

[1] Peiouns, Pejons, i. e. Pigeons, _j_ is never written here in the
    middle of a word.


Take gode broth and do in an erthen pot, take flour of payndemayn and
make erof past with water. and make erof thynne foyles as paper [2]
with a roller, drye it harde and see it in broth take Chese ruayn [3]
grated and lay it in disshes with powdour douce. and lay eron
loseyns isode as hoole as ou mizt [4]. and above powdour and chese,
and so twyse or thryse, & serue it forth.

[1] Loseyns. Vide in Gloss.
[2] foyles as paper. _Leaves_ of paste as thin as _paper_.
[3] Chese ruyan. 166. Vide Gloss.
[4] mizt. Might, i.e. can.


Take pork ysode and grynde it small with safroun, medle it with
ayrenn and raisons of coraunce and powdour fort and salt, and make a
foile of dowhz [2] and close the fars [3] erinne. cast e Tartletes
in a Panne with faire water boillyng and salt, take of the clene
Flessh withoute ayren & bolle it in gode broth. cast erto powdour
douce and salt, and messe the tartletes in disshes & helde [4] the
sewe eronne.

[1] Tarlettes. _Tartletes_ in the process.
[2] foile of dowhz, or dowght. A leaf of paste.
[3] fars. Forced-meat.
[4] helde. Cast.


Take Almandes iblaunched and drawe hem sumdell thicke [2] with gode
broth oer with water and set on the fire and see it, cast erto
zolkes of ayrenn ydrawe. take Pynes yfryed in oyle oer in grece and
erto white Powdour douce, sugur and salt. & colour it wi alkenet a

[1] Pynnonade. So named from the _Pynes_ therein used.
[2] sumdell thicke. Somewhat thick, thickish.


Take thyk mylke as to fore welled [2]. cast erto sugur a gode
porcioun pynes. Dates ymynced. canel. & powdour gynger and see it,
and alye it with flores of white Rosis, and flour of rys, cole it,
salt it & messe it forth. If ou wilt in stede of Almaunde mylke,
take swete cremes of kyne.

[1] Rosee. From the white roles therein mentioned. See No. 41. in Mi.
    Ed. but No. 47 there is totally different.
[2] welled, f. _willed_; directed.


Take Colyandre [2], Caraway smale grounden, Powdour of Peper and
garlec ygrounde in rede wyne, medle alle ise [3] togyder and salt it,
take loynes of Pork rawe and fle of the skyn, and pryk it wel with a
knyf and lay it in the sawse, roost erof what ou wilt, & kepe at
at fallith erfro in the rosting and see it in a possynet with
faire broth, & serue it forth wit e roost anoon [4].

[1] Cormarye. Quare.
[2] Golyandre. Coriander.
[3] ise. These.
[4] anoon. Immediately.


Take noumbles and waisshe hem clene with water and salt and perboile
hem in water. take hem up an dyce hem. do with hem as with ooer


The Loyne of the Pork, is fro the hippe boon to the hede.


The fyletes buth two, that buth take oute of the Pestels [1].

[1] Pestels. Legs.


Take and make gode thik Almaund mylke as tofore. and do erin of
flour of hawthorn [2]. and make it as a rose. & serue it forth.

[1] Spynee. As made of Haws, the berries of Spines, or Hawthorns.
[2] Hawthern. Hawthorn.


Take Almandes unblanched, waisshe hem, grynde hem, drawe hem up with
gode broth. do erto thridde part of chiryse. e stones. take oute
and grynde hem smale, make a layour of gode brede an powdour and salt
and do erto. colour it with sandres so that it may be stondyng, and
florish it with aneys and with cheweryes, and strawe eruppon and
serue it forth.

[1] Chyryse. _Chiryse_ in the process. _Cheriseye._ Ms. Ed. II. 18.
    _Chiryes_ there are cherries. And this dish is evidently made of
    Cherries, which probably were chiefly imported at this time from
    Flanders, though they have a Saxon name, [Anglo-Saxon: cyrre].


Take brede and frye it in grece oer in oyle, take it and lay it in
rede wyne. grynde it with raisouns take hony and do it in a pot and
cast erinne gleyres [2] of ayrenn wi a litel water and bete it wele
togider with a sklyse [3]. set it ouer the fires and boile it. and
whan the hatte [4] arisith to goon [5] ouer, take it adoun and kele
it, and whan it is er clarified; do it to the oere with sugur and
spices. salt it and loke it be stondyng, florish it with white
coliaundre in confyt.

[1] foundewe. Contents. It seems to mean _dissolved_. V. _found_ in
[2] gleyres. Whites.
[3] Sklyse. Slice.
[4] hatte. Seems to mean _bubling_ or _wallop_.
[5] goon. Go.


Take the offal of Capouns oer of oere briddes. make hem clene and
parboile hem. take hem up and dyce hem. take swete cowe mylke and
cast erinne. and lat it boile. take Payndemayn [2] and of e self
mylke and drawe thurgh a cloth and cast it in a pot and lat it see,
take ayren ysode. hewe the white and cast erto, and alye the sewe
with zolkes of ayren rawe. colour it with safron. take the zolkes and
fry hem and florish hem erwith and with powdour douce.

[1] Crotoun. Ms. Ed. 24. has _Craytoun_, but a different dish.
[2] Payndemayn. Whitebread. V. ad No. 41.


Take smale fylettes of Pork and rost hem half and smyte hem to
gobettes and do hem in wyne an Vynegur and Oynouns ymynced and stewe
it yfere do erto gode poudours an salt, an serue it forth.

[1] Vyne Grace. Named probably from _grees_, wild swine, and the mode
   of dressing in _wine_. V. Gloss. voce _Vyne grace_.


Take Almandes unblaunched. grynde hem and drawe hem up with gode
broth, take a lombe [2] or a kidde and half rost hym. or the ridde
[3] part, smyte hym in gobetes and cast hym to the mylke. take smale
briddes yfasted and ystyned [4]. and do erto sugur, powdour of
canell and salt, take zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode and cleeue [5] a
two and ypaunced [6] with flour of canell and florish e sewe above.
take alkenet fryed and yfoundred [7] and droppe above with a feur [8]
and messe it forth.

[1] Fonnell. Nothing in the recipe leads to the etymon of this
    multifarious dish.
[2] Lombe. Lamb.
[3] thridde. Third, per metathesin.
[4] yfasted and ystyned.
[5] cleeue. cloven.
[6] ypaunced. pounced.
[7] yfoundred. melted, dissolved.
[8] fe'. feather.


Take gode Cowe mylke and do it in a pot. take parsel. sawge. ysope.
saueray and ooer gode herbes. hewe hem and do hem in the mylke and
see hem. take capouns half yrosted and smyte hem on pecys and do
erto pynes and hony clarified. salt it and colour it with safroun an
serue it forth.

[1] Douce Ame. _Quasi_, a delicious dish. V. Blank Desire in Gloss.
    Titles of this tissue occur in Apicius. See Humelberg. p. 2.


Take Connynges and see hem wel in good broth. take wyne greke and do
erto with a porcioun of vyneger and flour of canel, hoole clowes
quybibes hoole, and ooer gode spices with raisouns coraunce and
gyngyner ypared and ymynced. take up the conynges and smyte hem on
pecys and cast hem into the Siryppe and see hem a litel on the fyre
and sue it forth.

[1] Cyrip. In the process _Siryppe. Cirypp_, Contents. _Sirop_ or
    _Sirup_, as 133. _Syryp_, 132.


Take rawe Pork and pulle of the skyn. and pyke out e skyn synewes
and bray the Pork in a morter with ayrenn rawe do erto suger, salt,
raysouns coraunce, dates mynced, and powdour of Peper powdour gylofre.
an do it in a bladder, and lat it see til it be ynowhz. and whan it
is ynowh, kerf if leshe it [2] in likenesse of a peskodde [3], and
take grete raysouns and grynde hem in a morter, drawe hem Up wi rede
wyne, do erto mylke of almaundes colour it with saunders an safroun.

and do erto powdour of peper an of gilofre and boile it. and whan it
is iboiled; take powdour of canel and gynger, and temper it up with
wyne. and do alle ise thynges togyder. and loke at it be rennyns
[4], and lat it not see after that it is cast togyder, an serue it

[1] Leche Lumbard. So called from the country. Randle Home says,
    _Leach_ is "a kind of jelly made of cream, ising-glass, sugar and
    almonds, with other compounds."
[2] Leshe it. Vide Gloss.
[3] Peskodde. Hull or pod of a pea.
[4] rennyns. Perhaps _thin_, from the old _renne_, to run. Vide Gloss.


Take Connynges and smyte hem in gobetes and waissh hem and do hem in
feyre water and wyne, and see hem and skym hem. and whan ey buth
isode pyke hem clene, and drawe the broth thurgh a straynour and do
the flessh erwith in a Possynet and styne it [1]. and do erto
vynegur and powdour or gynger and a grete quantite and salt after the
last boillyng and serue it forth.

[1] styne it. Close it. V. Gloss.


Take hony suger and clarifie it togydre. and boile it with esy fyre,
and kepe it wel fro brennyng and whan it hath yboiled a while; take
up a drope [2] erof wi y fyngur and do it in a litel water and
loke if it hong [3] togydre. and take it fro the fyre and do erto
the thriddendele [4] an powdour gyngener and stere [5] it togyder
til it bigynne to thik and cast it on a wete [6] table. lesh it and
serue it forth with fryed mete on flessh dayes or on fysshe dayes.

[1] Payn ragoun. It is not at all explained in the Recipe.
[2] Drope. Drop.
[3] hong. Hing, or hang.
[4] thriddendele. Third part, perhaps, _of brede_, i. e. of bread,
    may be casually omitted here. V. Gloss.
[5] stere. stir.
[6] wete. wet.


Take parsel and grynde with a Cowe mylk, medle it with ayrenn and

lard ydyced take mylke after at ou hast to done [2] and myng [3]
erwith. and make erof dyuerse colours. If ou wolt have zelow, do
erto safroun and no parsel. If ou wolt have it white; noner parsel
ne safroun but do erto amydoun. If ou wilt have rede do erto
sandres. If ou wilt have pownas [4] do erto turnesole [5]. If ou
wilt have blak do erto blode ysode and fryed. and set on the fyre in
as many vessels as ou hast colours erto and see it wel and lay
ise colours in a cloth first oon. and sithen anoer upon him. and
sithen the ridde and the ferthe. and presse it harde til it be all
out clene. And whan it is al colde, lesh it thynne, put it in a panne
and fry it wel. and serue it forth.

[1] Lete Lardes. _Lards_ in form of Dice are noticed in the process.
    See Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. _Lete_ is the Fr. _Lait_, milk. V. No. 81.
    or Brit. _Llaeth_. Hence, perhaps, _Lethe Cpyrus_ and _Lethe Rube_.
    Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. But VI. p. 5, it is _Leche_.
[2] to done, i. e. done.
[3] myng. mix.
[4] pownas. Qu.
[5] turnesole. Not the flower _Heliotrope_, but a drug. Northumb.
    Book, p. 3. 19. I suppose it to be _Turmeric_. V. Brooke's Nat. Hist.
    of Vegetables, p. 9. where it is used both in victuals and for dying.


Take Almandes blanched. bray hem and drawe hem up with faire water,
make furmente as before [2] and cast er furmente erto. & messe it
with Porpays.

[1] Porpays. _Porpeys_, Contents, and so No. 116. Porpus.
[2] as before. This is the first mention of it.


Take pesoun and see hem fast and covere hem til ei berst. enne
take up hem and cole hem thurgh a cloth. take oynouns and mynce hem
and see hem in the same sewe and oile erwith, cast erto sugur,
salt and safroun, and see hem wel eratt erafter and serue hem

[1] Perrey of Pesoun, i.e. Peas. _Perrey_ seems to mean pulp: vide No.
    73. Mr. Ozell in Rabelais, IV. c. 60. renders _Puree de pois_ by
    _Peas soup_.


Take white pesoun, waisshe hem see hem a grete while, take hem and
cole hem thurgh a cloth, waisshe hem in colde water til the hulles go
off, cast hem in a pot and couere at no breth [2] go out. and boile
hem right wel. and cast erinne gode mylke of allmandes and a pertye
of flour of Rys wi powdour gynger safroun. and salt.

[1] Almayne. Germany; called Almony No. 47.
[2] breth. Breath, air, steam. Ms. Ed. No. 2.


Take chiches and wry hem [2] in ashes all nyzt, oer lay hem in hoot
aymers [3], at morrowe [4], waisshe hem in clene water and do hem
ouer the fire with clene water. see hem up and do erto oyle,
garlec, hole safroun. powdour fort and salt, see it and messe it

[1] Chyches. _Vicia_, vetches. In Fr. _Chiches_.
[2] Wry hem. _Dry hem_, or _cover hem_. Chaucer, v. wrey.
[3] Aymers. Embers; of which it is evidently a corruption.
[4] at morrowe. Next Morning.


Take and see white peson and take oute e perrey [2] & parboile
erbis & hewe hem grete & caft hem in a pot with the perrey pulle
oynouns & see hem hole wel in water & do hem to e Perrey with oile
& salt, colour it with safroun & messe it and cast eron powdour douce.

[1] Frenche. Contents have it more fully, _Frenche Owtes_. V. ad No. 6.
[2] Perrey. Pulp. V. ad No. 70.


Take drawen benes and see hem wel. take hem up of the water and cast
hem in a morter grynde hem al to doust til ei be white as eny mylk,
chawf [2] a litell rede wyne, cast eramong in e gryndyng, do erto
salt, leshe it in disshes. anne take Oynouns and mynce hem smale and
see hem in oile til ey be al broun [3]. and florissh the disshes
therwith. and serue it forth.

[1] Makke. _Ignotum_.
[2] Chawf. Warm.
[3] broun. Brown.


Pill garlec and cast it in a pot with water and oile. and see it, do
erto safroun, salt, and powdour fort and dresse it forth hool.

[1] Aquapatys. _Aquapates_, Contents. Perhaps named from the water
    used in it.


Take persel, sawge, garlec, chibolles, oynouns, leek, borage, myntes,
porrectes [1], fenel and ton tressis [2], rew, rosemarye, purslarye
[3], laue and waische hem clene, pike hem, pluk hem small wi yn [4]
honde and myng hem wel with rawe oile. lay on vynegur and salt, and
serue it forth.

[1] Porrectes. Fr. _Porrette_.
[2] Ton tressis. Cresses. V. Gloss.
[3] Purslarye. Purslain.
[4] yn. thine.


Take blades of Fenkel. shrede hem not to smale, do hem to see in
water and oile and oynouns mynced erwith. do erto safroun and salt
and powdour douce, serue it forth, take brede ytosted and lay the
sewe onoward.


Take elena campana and see it water [2]. take it up and grynde it
wel in a morter. temper it up with ayrenn safroun and salt and do it
ouer the fire and lat it not boile. cast above powdour douce and
serue it forth.

[1] Clat. Qu.
[2] water; r. _in water_, as in No. 79.


Take Apples and see hem in water, drawe hem thurgh a straynour.
take almaunde mylke & hony and flour of Rys, safroun and powdour fort
and salt. and see it stondyng [2].

[1] Appulmoy. _Appulmos_. Ms. Ed. No. 17. named from the apples
    employed. V. No. 149.
[2] stondyng. thick.


Take white of Lekes and slyt hem, and do hem to see in wyne, oile
and salt, rost brede and lay in dysshes and the sewe above and serue
it forth.

[1] Slete. slit.


Take Ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a styunour and do erto cowe mylke
with butter and safroun and salt and see it wel. leshe it. and loke
at it be stondyng. and serue it forth.

[1] Letelorye. The latter part of the compound is unknown, the first
    is Fr. _Lait_, milk. Vide No. 68.


Take Almaundes brayed, drawe hem up with wyne. ooile it, cast
eruppon safroun and salt, take brede itosted in wyne. lay erof a
leyne [2] and anoer of e sewe and alle togydre. florish it with
sugur powdour gyngur and serue it forth.

[1] Sowpes Dorry. Sops endorsed. V. _Dorry_ in Gloss.
[2] A leyne. a layer.


Take half fyges and half raisouns pike hem and waisshe

hem in water skalde hem in wyne. bray hem in a morter, and drawe hem
thurgh a straynour. cast hem in a pot and erwi powdour of peper and
ooer good powdours. alay it up with flour of Rys. and colour it with
saundres. salt it. & messe it forth.

[1] Rape. A dissyllable, as appears from _Rapey_ in the Contents.
    _Rapy_, Ms. Ed. No. 49. _Rapee_, ibid. II. 28.


Take heppes and make hem clene. take Almaundes blaunched, frye hem in
oile and bray hem in a morter with heppes. drawe it up with rede wyne,
and do erin sugur ynowhz with Powdour sort, lat it be stondyng, and
alay it with flour of Rys. and colour it with alkenet and messe it
forth. and florish it with Pomme garnet. If ou wilt in flesshe day.
see Capouns and take the brawnn and tese hem smal and do erto. and
make the lico [2] of is broth.

[1] Sawse Sarzyne. _Sause_. Contents. _Saracen_, we prefume, from the
    nation or people. There is a Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 54 for a Bruet of
    _Sarcynesse_, but there are no pomgranates concerned.
[2] lico. liquor.


Take Almaundes blaunched, grynde hem and drawe hem up thykke, set hem
ouer the fyre & boile hem. set hem adoun and spryng [1] hem wicii
Vyneger, cast hem abrode uppon a cloth and cast uppon hem sugur. whan
it is colde gadre it togydre and leshe it in dysshes.

[1] spryng. sprinkle.


Take Almaundes blaunched, bray hem with oot meel [1]. and draw hem up
with water. cast eron Safroun & salt &c.

[1] oot meel. oat-meal.


Take Almaundes blaunched and drawe hem up with wyne, do erto powdour
of gyngur and sugur and colour it with Safroun. boile it and serue it


Take erbes, boile hem, hewe hem and grynde hem smale. and drawe hem
up with water. set hem on the fire and see the rowtes with the mylke.
and cast eron sugur & salt. & serue it forth.

[1] Jowtes. V. ad No. 60.


Take Almaundes blanched, grynde hem and drawe hem up with water and
wyne: quarter fygur hole raisouns. cast erto powdour gyngur and hony
clarified. see it wel & salt it, and serue forth.

[1] Fygey. So named from the figs therein used. A different Recipe,
Ms. Ed. No. 3, has no figs.


Take Ayrenn and breke hem in scaldyng hoot water. and whan ei bene
sode ynowh. take hem up and take zolkes of ayren and rawe mylke and
swyng hem togydre, and do erto powdour gyngur safroun and salt, set
it ouere the fire, and lat it not boile, and take ayrenn isode & cast
e sew onoward. & serue it forth.

[1] Pochee. Poached eggs. Very different from the present way.


Take ayrenn, water and butter, and see hem yfere with safroun and
gobettes of chese. wryng ayrenn thurgh a straynour. whan the water
hath soden awhile: take enne the ayrenn and swyng hem with verious.
and cast erto. set it ouere the fire and lat it not boile. and serue
it forth.


Take and make a thynne foyle of dowh. and kerve it on peces, and cast
hem on boillyng water & see it wele. take chese and grate it and
butter cast bynethen and above as losyns. and serue forth.

[1] Macrows. _Maccherone_, according to the Recipe in _Altieri_,
    corresponds nearly enough with our process; so that this title seems
    to want mending, and yet I know not how to do it to satisfaction.


Take wyne and hony and found it [2] togyder and skym it clene. and
see it long, do erto powdour of gyngur. peper and salt, tost brede
and lay the sew erto. kerue pecys of gyngur and flour it erwith and
messe it forth.

[1] Tostee. So called from the toasted bread.
[2] found it. mix it.


Take the Powche [2] and the Lyuour [3] of haddok, codlyng and hake [4]
and of ooer fisshe, parboile hem, take hem and dyce hem small, take
of the self broth and wyne, a layour of brede of galyntyne with gode
powdours and salt, cast at fysshe erinne and boile it. & do erto
amydoun. & colour it grene.

[1] Gyngawdry. Qu.
[2] Powche. Crop or stomach.
[3] Lyuour. Liver. V. No. 137.
[4] Hake. "Asellus alter, sive Merlucius, Aldrov." So Mr. Ray. See
    Pennant, III. p. 156.


Take bolas and scald hem with wyne and drawe hem with [2] a straynour
do hem in a pot, clarify hony and do erto with powdour fort. and
flour of Rys. Salt it & florish it with whyte aneys. & serue it forth.

[1] Erbowle. Perhaps from the _Belas_, or Bullace employed.
[2] with, i.e. thurgh or thorough.


Take Almaundes blaunched and drawe hem up with water and alye it with
flour of Rys and do erto powdour of gyngur sugur and salt, and loke
it be not stondyng [2], messe it and serue it forth.

[1] Resmolle. From the Rice there used; for Ms. Ed. II. No. 5. has
    _Rysmoyle_, where _moyle_ seems to be Fr. _moile_, as written also in
    the Roll. _Rice molens potage_. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 26.
[2] Not stondyng. Thin, diluted. V. No. 98. Not to [too] stondyng,


Take oot mele and pike out the stones and grynde hem smal, and drawe
hem thurgh a straynour. take mede oer wyne ifonded in sugur and do
ise erinne. do erto powdour and salt, and alay it with flour of
Rys and do at it be stondyng. if thou wilt on flesh day; take hennes
and pork ysode & grynde hem smale and do erto. & messe it forth.

[1] Cypre. _Cipre_, Contents here and No. 98.


Take Almandes and bray hem unblaunched. take calwar [2] Samoun and
see it in lewe water [3] drawe up yn Almandes with the broth. pyke
out the bones out of the fyssh clene & grynde it small & cast y mylk
& at togyder & alye it with flour of Rys, do erto powdour fort,
sugur & salt & colour it with alkenet & loke at hit be not stondyng
and messe it forth.

[1] Samoun. Salmon.
[2] calwar. Salwar, No. 167. R. Holme says, "_Calver_ is a term used
    to a Flounder when to be boiled in oil, vinegar, and spices and to be
    kept in it." But in Lancashire Salmon newly taken and immediately
    dressed is called _Calver Salmon_: and in Littleton _Salar_ is a
    young salmon.
[3] lewe water. warm. V. Gloss.


Take wyne greke, oer rynysshe wyne and hony clarified erwith. take
flour of rys powdour of Gyngur o of peper & canel. oer flour of
canel. powdour of clowes, safroun. sugur cypre. mylberyes, oer
saundres. & medle alle ise togider. boile it and salt it. and loke
at it be stondyng.


Take rote of parsel. pasternak of rasenns [2]. scrape hem waisthe hem
clene. take rapes & caboches ypared and icorne [3]. take an erthen
panne with clene water & set it on the fire. cast all ise erinne.
whan ey buth boiled cast erto peeres & parboile hem wel. take ise
thynges up & lat it kele on a fair cloth, do erto salt whan it is
colde in a vessel take vineger & powdour & safroun & do erto. & lat
alle ise thinges lye erin al nyzt oer al day, take wyne greke and
hony clarified togider lumbarde mustard & raisouns corance al hool.
& grynde powdour of canel powdour douce. & aneys hole. & fenell seed.
take alle ise thynges & cast togyder in a pot of erthe. and take
erof whan ou wilt & serue forth.

[1] Compost. A composition to be always ready at hand. Holme, III. p.
    78. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5.
[2] Pasternak of rasenns. Qu.
[3] ypared and icorne. The first relates to the Rapes, the second to
    the Caboches, and means carved or cut in pieces.


Take Tenches, pykes [2], eelys, turbut and plays [3], kerue hem to
pecys. scalde hem & waische hem clene. drye hem with a cloth do hem
in a panne do erto half vyneger & half wyne & see it wel. & take
the Fysshe and pike it clene, cole the broth thurgh a cloth into a
erthen panne. do erto powdour of pep and safroun ynowh. lat it
see and skym it wel whan it is ysode dof [4] grees clene, cowche
fisshes on chargeours & cole the sewe thorow a cloth onoward
& serue it forth.

[1] Gele. Jelly. _Gelee_, Contents here and in the next Recipe.
    _Gely_, Ms. Ed. No. 55, which presents us with much the same
[2] It is commonly thought this fish was not extant in England till
    the reign of H. VIII.; but see No. 107. 109. 114. So Lucys, or Tenchis,
    Ms. Ed. II 1. 3. Pygus or Tenchis, II. 2. Pikys, 33 Chaucer, v. Luce;
    and Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 1. 5. _Luce salt_. Ibid. p. 6. Mr.
    Topham's Ms. written about 1230, mentions _Lupos aquaticos five
    Luceas_ amongst the fish which the fishmonger was to have in his shop.
    They were the arms of the Lucy family so early as Edw. I. See also
    Pennant's Zool. III. p. 280, 410.
[3] Plays. Plaise, the fish.
[4] Dof, i. e. do of.


Take swyner feet & snowter and the eerys [1]. capouns. connynges calues
fete. & wiasche hem clene. & do hem to see in the riddel [2] of
wyne & vyneger and water and make  forth as bifore.

[1] Eerys. Ears.
[2] Thriddel. V. ad No. 67.


Take Roches. hole Tenches and plays & sinyte hem to gobettes. fry hem
in oyle blaunche almaundes. fry hem & cast wyne & of vyneger er
pridde part erwith fyges drawen & do erto powdour fort and salt.
boile it. lay the Fisshe in an erthen panne cast the sewe erto. see
oynouns ymynced & cast erinne. kepe hit and ete it colde.

[1] Chysanne. Qu.


Take the Conger and scald hym. and smyte hym in pecys & see hym.
take parsel. mynt. peleter. rosmarye. & a litul sawge. brede and salt,
powdour fort and a litel garlec, clower a lite, take and grynd it wel,
drawe it up with vyneger thurgh a clot. cast the fyssh in a vessel
and do e sewe onoward & serue it forth.

[1] Congur. The Eel called _Congre_. _Sawce_, Contents here, and No.
    105, 106.


Take Ryghzes and make hem clene and do hem to see, pyke hem clene
and frye hem in oile. take Almandes and grynde hem in water or wyne,
do erto almandes blaunched hole fryed in oile. & coraunce see the
lyour grynde it smale & do erto garlec ygronde & litel salt &
verious powdour fort & safroun & boile it yfere, lay the Fysshe in a
vessel and cast the fewe erto. and messe it forth colde.

[1] Rygh. A Fish, and probably the _Ruffe_.


Take Makerels and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem on water and various.
see hem with mynter and wi oother erbes, colour it grene or zelow,
and messe it forth.


Take Pykes and undo hem on e wombes [2] and waisshe hem clene and
lay hem on a roost Irne [3] enne take gode wyne and powdour gynger &
sugur good wone [4] & salt, and boile it in an erthen panne & messe
forth e pyke & lay the sewe onoward.

[1] Brasey. Qu.
[2] Wombs. bellies.
[3] roost Irene. a roasting iron.
[4] good wone. a good deal. V. Gloss.


Make as ou madest Noumbles of Flesh with oynouns.


Take Eelys and hilde [2] hem and kerue hem to pecys and do hem to
see in water and wyne so at it be a litel ouer stepid [3]. do erto
sawge and ooer erbis with few [4] oynouns ymynced, whan the Eelis
buth soden ynowz do hem in a vessel, take a pyke and kerue it to
gobettes and see hym in the same broth do erto powdour gynger
galyngale canel and peper, salt it and cast the Eelys erto & messe
it forth.

[1] Balloc. _Ballok_, Contents.
[2] hilde. skin.
[3] on stepid. steeped therein. V. No. 110.
[4] few, i.e. a few.


Take Crustes of brede and wyne and make a lyour, do erto oynouns
ymynced, powdour. & canel. & a litel water and wyne. loke at it be
stepid, do erto salt, kerue in Eelis & see hem wel and serue hem


Take the guttes of Samoun and make hem clene. perboile hem a lytell.
take hem up and dyce hem. slyt the white of Lekes and kerue hem smale.
cole the broth and do the lekes erinne with oile and lat it boile
togyd yfere [1]. do the Samoun icorne erin, make a lyour of
Almaundes mylke & of brede & cast erto spices, safroun and salt,

see it wel. and loke at it be not stondyng.

[1] togyd yfere. One of these should be struck out.


Take Plays and smyte hem [1] to pecys and fry hem in oyle. drawe a
lyour of brede & gode broth & vyneger. and do erto powdour gynger.
canel. peper and salt and loke at it be not stondyng.

[1] Vide No. 104. Qu.


Take clene pork and boile it tendre. enne hewe it small and bray it
smal in a morter. take fyges and boile hem tendre in smale ale. and
bray hem and tendre chese erwith. enne waisthe hem in water & ene
lyes [1] hem alle togider wit Ayrenn, enne take powdour of pepper.
or els powdour marchannt & ayrenn and a porcioun of safroun and salt.
enne take blank sugur. eyrenn & flour & make a past wit a roller,
ene make erof smale pelettes [2]. & fry hem broun in clene grece &
set hem asyde. enne make of at ooer deel [3] of at past long
coffyns [4] & do at comade [5] erin. and close hem faire with a
countoer [6], & pynche hem smale about. anne kyt aboue foure oer
sex wayes, anne take euy [7] of at kuttyng up, & enne colour it
wit zolkes of Ayrenn, and plannt hem thick, into the flaumpeyns above
at ou kuttest hem & set hem in an ovene and lat hem bake eselich
[8]. and anne serue hem forth.

[1] lyer. mix.
[2] Pelettes. _Pelotys_ Ms. Ed. No. 16. Balls, pellets, from Fr.
[3] deel. deal, i.e. part, half.
[4] Coffyns. Pies without lids.
[5] comade. Qu.
[6] coutour. coverture, a lid.
[7] euy. every.
[8] eselich. easily, gently.


Take the blode of pykes oer of conger and nyme [1] the paunches of
pykes. of conger and of grete code lyng [2], & boile hem tendre &
mynce hem smale & do hem in at blode. take crustes of white brede &
strayne it thurgh a cloth. enne take oynouns iboiled and mynced.
take peper and safroun. wyne. vynegur aysell [3] oer alegur & do
erto & serue forth.

[1] nyme. take. Perpetually used in Ms. Ed. from Sax. niman.
[2] code lyng. If a Codling be a _small cod_, as we now understand
    it, _great codling_ seems a contradiction in terms.
[3] Aysell. Eisel, vinegar. Littleton.


Take blode of gurnardes and congur & e paunch of gurnardes and
boile hem tendre & mynce hem smale, and make a lyre of white Crustes
and oynouns ymynced, bray it in a morter & anne boile it togyder til
it be stondyng. enne take vynegur o aysell & safroun & put it erto
and serue it forth.

[1] Chawdoun. V. Gloss.


Take clene whete and bete it small in a morter and fanne out clene
the doust, enne waisthe it clene and boile it tyl it be tendre and
broun. anne take the secunde mylk of Almaundes & do erto. boile hem
togidur til it be stondyng, and take e first mylke & alye it up wi
a penne [1]. take up the porpays out of the Furmente & leshe hem in
a dishe with hoot water. & do safroun to e furmente. and if the
porpays be salt. see it by hym self, and serue it forth.

[1] Penne. Feather, or pin. Ms. Ed. 28.


Take Pork, and rost it tyl the blode be tryed out & e broth [1].
take crustes of brede and bray hem in a morter, an drawe hem thurgh a
cloth with e broth, enne take oynouns an leshe hem on brede an do
to the broth. anne take pork, and leshe it clene with a dressyng
knyf and cast it into e pot broth, & lat it boile til it be more
tendre. anne take at lyour erto. anne take a porcion of peper and
saundres & do erto. anne take parsel & ysope & mynce it smale & do
erto. anne take rede wyne oer white grece & raysouns & do erto. &
lat it boile a lytel.

[1] the broth. Supposed to be prepared beforehand.


Take fayr Veel and kyt it in smale pecys and boile it tendre in fyne
broth oer in water. anne take white brede oer wastel [2], and
drawe erof a white ... lyour wi fyne broth, and do e lyour to the
Veel, & do safroun erto, anne take parsel & bray it in a morter &
the Juys [3] erof do erto, and anne is is half zelow & half grene.
anne take a porcioun of wyne & powdour marchant & do erto and lat
it boile wele, and do erto a litel of [4] vynegur. & serue forth.

[1] Buknade. V. No. 17.
[2] Wastel. V. Gloss.
[3] Juys. Juice.
[4] litel of vynegur. We say, _a little vinegar_, omitting _of_. So
    152, _a lytull of lard_.


Take Sooles and hylde hem, see hem in water, smyte hem on pecys and

take away the fynnes. take oynouns iboiled & grynde the fynnes
erwith and brede. drawe it up with the self broth. do erto powdour
fort, safroun & hony clarified with salt, see it alle yfere. broile
the sooles & messe it in dysshes & lay the sewe above. & serue forth.

[1] Cynee. _Cyney_, Contents, both here and No. 120. 123. See before,
    No. 25.


Take Tenches and smyte hem to pecys, fry hem, drawe a lyour of
Raysouns coraunce wit wyne and water, do erto hool raisouns &
powdour of gyngur of clowes of canel of peper do the Tenches erto &
see hem with sugur cypre & salt. & messe forth.


Schyl [1] Oysters and see hem in wyne and in hare [2] own broth.
cole the broth thurgh a cloth. take almandes blaunched, grynde
hem and drawe hem up with the self broth. & alye it wi flour of
Rys. and do the oysters erinne, cast in powdour of gyngur,
sugur, macys. see it not to stondyng and serue forth.

[1] shell, take of the shells.
[2] hare. their. _her_. No. 123. Chaucer.


Take muskels, pyke hem, see hem with the owne broth, make a lyour of
crustes [2] & vynegur do in oynouns mynced. & cast the muskels erto
& see it. & do erto powdour with a lytel salt & safron the samewise
make of oysters.

[1] Muskles. _muskels_ below, and the Contents. Muscles.
[2] crustes. i.e. of bread.


Take Oysters parboile hem in her owne broth, make a lyour of crustes

of brede & drawe it up wi the broth and vynegur mynce oynouns & do
erto with erbes. & cast the oysters erinne. boile it. & do erto
powdour fort & salt. & messe it forth.


Take and see muskels, pyke hem clene, and waisshe hem clene in wyne.
take almandes & bray hem. take somme of the muskels and grynde hem. &
some hewe smale, drawe the muskels yground with the self broth. wryng
the almaundes with faire water. do alle ise togider. do erto
verious and vyneger. take whyte of lekes & parboile hem wel. wryng
oute the water and hewe hem smale. cast oile erto with oynouns
parboiled & mynced smale do erto powdour fort, safroun and salt. a
lytel see it not to to [1] stondyng & messe it forth.

[1] to to, i. e. too too. Vide No. 17.


Take codlyng, haddok, o hake and lynours with the rawnes [1] and
see it wel in water. pyke out e bones, grynde smale the Fysshe,
drawe a lyour of almaundes & brede with the self broth. and do the
Fysshe grounden erto. and see it and do erto powdour fort, safroun
and salt, and make it stondyng.

[1] rawnes. roes.


Take Laumpreys and sle [1] hem with vynegur oer with white wyne &
salt, scalde hem in water. slyt hem a litel at er nauel.... & rest a
litel at the nauel. take out the guttes at the ende. kepe wele the
blode. put the Laumprey on a spyt. roost hym & kepe wel the grece.
grynde raysouns of coraunce. hym up [2] with vyneger. wyne. and
crustes of brede. do erto powdour of gyngur. of galyngale [3]. flour
of canel. powdour of clowes, and do erto raisouns of coraunce hoole.
with e blode & e grece. see it & salt it, boile it not to stondyng,
take up the Laumprey do hym in a chargeour [4], & lay e sewe onoward,
& serue hym forth.

[1] sle. slay, kill.
[2] hym up. A word seems omitted; _drawe_ or _lye_.
[3] of galyngale, i. e. powder. V. No. 101.
[4] Chargeour. charger or dish. V. No. 127.


Take Lamprouns and scalde hem. see hem, meng powdour galyngale and
some of the broth togyder & boile it & do erto powdour of gyngur &
salt. take the Laumprouns & boile hem & lay hem in dysshes. & lay the
sewe above. & serue fort.


Take Almandes unblaunched and waisthe hem clene, drawe hem up with
water. see e mylke & alye it up with loseyns. cast erto safroun.
sugur. & salt & messe it forth with colyandre in confyt rede, & serue
it forth.

[1] Loseyns. _Losyns_, Contents.


Take powdour of galyngale with sugur and salt and boile it yfere.
take brede ytosted. and lay the sewe onoward. and serue it forth.

[1] Sowpes of Galyntyne. Contents has _in_, recte. _Sowpes_ means


Take Raysouns, grynde hem with crustes of brede; and drawe it up with
wyne. do erto gode powdours and salt. and see it. fry roches,
looches, sool, oer ooer gode Fyssh, cast e sewe above, & serue it


Take crome [1] of almaundes. dry it in a cloth. and whan it is dryed
do it in a vessel, do erto salt, sugur, and white powdour of gyngur
and Juys of Fenel and wyne. and lat it wel stonde. lay full & messe &
dresse it forth.

[1] crome. crumb, pulp.


Take peeres and pare hem clene. take gode rede wyne & mulberes [2]
oer saundres and see e peeres erin & whan ei buth ysode, take
hem up, make a syryp of wyne greke. oer vernage [3] with blaunche
powdour oer white sugur and powdour gyngur & do the peres erin.
see it a lytel & messe it forth.

[1] Peeres. pears.
[2] mulberes. mulberries, for colouring.
[3] Vernage. Vernaccia, a sort of Italian white wine. V. Gloss.


Take Loches oer Tenches oer Solys smyte hem on pecys. fry hem in
oyle. take half wyne half vynegur and sugur & make a siryp. do erto
oynouns icorue [2] raisouns coraunce. and grete raysouns. do erto
hole spices. gode powdours and salt. messe e fyssh & lay e sewe
aboue and serue forth.

[1] Egurdouce. Vide Gloss.
[2] icorue, icorven. cut. V. Gloss.


Take Almaundes and grynde hem. take the tweydel [1] of wyne oer the
riddell of vynegur. drawe up the Almaundes erwith. take anys sugur
& branches of fenel grene a fewe. & drawe hem up togyder with er
mylke take poudour of canell. of gyngur. clowes. & maces hoole. take
kydde oer chikenns oer flessh. & choppe hem small and see hem.
take all is flessh whan it is sodenn & lay it in a clene vessel &
boile er sewe & cast erto salt. enne cast al is in e pot with
flesh. &ter. [2]

[1] Tweydel. Two parts.
[2] &ter. i. e. serue forth.


Take Brede & fry it in grece. drawe it up with broth and vynegur,
take erto powdour of peper & salt and sette it on the fyre. boile it
and messe it forth.

[1] Pevorat. Peverade, from the pepper of which it is principally


Take Almandes blaunched and grynd hem al to doust. temper it up with
verions and powdour or gyngyner and messe it forth.

[2] Sawse. _Sawce_, Contents. As No. 137.


Take the lyuer of Capons and roost it wel. take anyse and greynes de
Parys [1]. gyngur. canel. & a lytill crust of brede and grinde it
smale. and grynde it up with verions. and wit grece of Capouns.
boyle it and serue it forth.

[1] de Parys. Of Paradise. V. Pref.


Take crustes of Brede and grynde hem smale, do erto powdour of
galyngale, of canel, of gyngyner and salt it, tempre it with vynegur
and drawe it up urgh a straynour & messe it forth.

[1] Galyntyne. Galentyne, Contents.


Take payndemayn and pare it clene and funde it in Vinegur, grynde it
and temper it wi Vynegur, and with powdour gyngur and salt, drawe it
thurgh a straynour. and serue forth.

[1] Gyngener. From the powder of Ginger therein used.


Take parsel. mynt. garlek. a litul serpell [2] and sawge, a litul
canel. gyngur. piper. wyne. brede. vynegur & salt grynde it smal with

safroun & messe it forth.

[1] Verde. It has the sound of _Green-sauce_, but as there is no
    Sorel in it, it is so named from the other herbs.
[2] a litul serpell. Wild thyme.


Take brede and blode iboiled. and grynde it and drawe it thurgh a
cloth with Vynegur, do erto powdour of gyngur ad of peper. & e
grece of the Maulard. salt it. boile it wel and serue it forth.


Take garlec and grynde it smale. Safroun and flour erwith & salt.
and temper it up with Cowe Mylke. and see it wel and serue it forth.


Take e lyuer and e offall [2] of the Swannes & do it to see in
gode broth. take it up. take out e bonys. take & hewe the flessh
smale. make a Lyour of crustes of brede & of e blode of e Swan
ysoden. & do erto powdour of clowes & of piper & of wyne & salt, &
see it & cast e flessh erto ihewed. and messe it forth with e

[1] Chawdoun. V. Gloss.
[2] offall. _Exta_, Gibles.


Take Raysouns of Coraunce. & kyrnels of notys. & crustes of brede &
powdour of gyngur clowes flour of canel. bray it [2] wel togyder and
do it erto. salt it, temper it up with vynegur. and serue it forth.

[1] Camelyne. Qu. if _Canelyne_ from the _Fluor of Canel_?
[2] bray. bray.


Take Mustard seed and waishe it & drye it in an ovene, grynde it drye.
farse it thurgh a farse. clarifie hony with wyne & vynegur & stere it
wel togedrer and make it thikke ynowz. & whan ou wilt spende erof
make it tnynne with wyne.


Cranes [1] and Herouns shul be armed [2] with lardes of Swyne. and
eten with gyngur.

[1] Cranes. A dish frequent formerly at great tables. Archaologia,
    II. p. 171. mentioned with Herons, as here, Ms. Ed. 3. where the same
    Recipe occurs. et v. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 38. Rabelais, IV.
    c. 59. E. of Devon's Feast.
[2] armed. Ms. Ed. No. 3. has _enarmed_, as may be read there.
    _Enarmed_, however, in Lel. Collect. IV. p. 225. means, decorated
    with coate of arms. Sheldes of Brawn are there _in armor_, p. 226.
    However, there is such a word as _enorned_. Leland, p. 280. 285. 297.
    which approaches nearer.


Pokok and Partruch shul be parboiled. lardid and rosted. and eten
with gyngeuer.


Take Almandes blaunched and grynde hem al to doust, do ise in a
thynne foile. close it erinnne fast. and fry it in Oile. clarifie
hony with Wyne. & bake it erwith.


Take skyrwater and pasternakes and apples, & parboile hem, make a
batour of flour and ayrenn, cast erto ale. safroun & salt. wete hem
in e batour and frye hem in oile or in grece. do erto Almaund Mylk.
& serue it forth.

[1] Frytour, &c. Contents has only, _Frytours of Pasternakes_. N. B.
    _Frytour_ is _Fritter_.


Take of cruddes [1] and presse out e wheyze [2]. do erto sum whyte
of ayrenn. fry hem. do erto. & lay on sugur and messe forth.

[1] Cruddes. Curds, per metathesin.
[2] wheyze. whey.


Take gode erbys. grynde hem and medle [1] hem with flour and water &
a lytel zest and salt, and frye hem in oyle. and ete hem with clere

[1] medle. mix.


Take swyne lyuoers and see hem wel. take brede & grate it. and take
zolkes of ayrenn. & make hit sowple [2] and do erto a lytull of lard
carnoun lyche a dee [3]. chese gratyd [4] & whyte grece. powdour
douce & of gyngur & wynde it to balles [5] as grete as apples. take
e calle of e swyne & cast euere [6] by hym self erin. Make a Crust
in a trape [7]. and lay e ball erin & bake it. and whan ey buth
ynowz: put erin a layour of ayrenn with powdour fort and Safroun.
and serue it forth.

[1] Rasyols. Rasiowls, Contents. Qu. the etymen.
[2] sowple. supple.
[3] carnoun lyche a dee. Cut like dice, diced. Fr. _De_; singular of
[4] gratyd. grated. _igrated_, No. 153.
[5] wynde it to balles, make it into Balls.
[6] euere. each.
[7] trape. pan, or dish. French.


Take Ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a cloth. take powdour fort, brede
igrated, & safroun, & cast erto a gode quantite of vynegur with a
litull salt, medle all yfere. make a foile in a trape & bake it wel
erinne. and serue it forth.

[1] Mylates. Contents, _Milates_; but 155 as here. Qu.


Take peiouns [2], chykens, and smale briddes smyte hem in gobettes.
& see hem alle ifere in god bro wi veriaws [3] do erto safroun,
make a crust in a trape. and pynche it. & cowche e flessh erinne. &
cast erinne Raisouns coraunce. powdour douce and salt. breke ayrenn
and wryng hem thurgh a cloth & swyng e sewe of e stewe erwith
and helde it [4] uppon the flessh. couere it & bake it wel. and serue
it forth.

[1] Crustards. Pies.
[2] peiouns. pigeons. V. ad No. 48.
[3] veriaws. Verjuice.
[4] helde it. pour, cast.


Hewe Pork al to pecys and medle it with ayrenn & chese igrated. do
erto powdour fort safroun & pyneres [1] with salt, make a crust in a
trape, bake it wel erinne, and serue it forth.

[1] pyneres. Vide Pref.


Take loches, laumprouns, and Eelis. smyte hem on pecys, and stewe hem
wi Almaund Mylke and verions, frye the loches in oile as tofore. and
lay e fissh erinne. cast eron powdour fort powdour douce. with
raysons coraunce & prunes damysyns. take galyntyn and e sewe erinne,
and swyng it togyder and cast in the trape. & bake it and serue it


Take gode Eerbys and grynde hem smale with wallenotes pyked clene. a
grete portioun. lye it up almost wi as myche verions as water. see
it wel with powdour and Safroun withoute Salt. make a crust in a
trape and do e fyssh erinne unstewed wi a litel oile & gode
Powdour. whan it is half ybake do e sewe erto & bake it up. If ou
wilt make it clere of Fyssh see ayrenn harde. & take out e zolkes &
grinde hem with gode powdours. and alye it up with gode stewes [2]
and serue it forth.

[1] Erbis. Rather _Erbis and Fissh_.
[2] stewes. V. No. 170.


Drawe a thick almaunde Mylke wi water. take dates and pyke hem clene
with apples and peeres & mynce hem with prunes damysyns. take out e
stones out of e prunes. & kerue the prunes a two. do erto Raisouns
sugur. flour of canel. hoole macys and clowes. gode powdours & salt.
colour hem up with saundres. meng ise with oile, make a coffyn as
ou didest bifore & do is Fars [3] erin. and bake it wel and serue
it forth.

[1] Leshes. V. Leche Lumbard in Gloss.
[2] lenton. Lentoun, Contents, i. e. Lent.
[3] Fars. Vide Gloss.


Take a Wastel and hewe out e crummes. take ayrenn & shepis talow &
e crummes of e same Wastell powdour fort & salt with Safroun and
Raisouns coraunce. & medle alle ise yfere & do it in e Wastel.
close it & bynde it fast togidre. and see it wel.


Take sawge. grynde it and temper it up with ayrenn. a saweyster [1] &
kerf hym to gobettes and cast it in a possynet. and do erwi grece &
frye it. Whan it is fryed ynowz cast erto sawge with ayren make it
not to harde. cast erto powdour douce, messe it forth. If it be in
Ymber day; take sauge butter & ayrenn. and lat it stonde wel by e
sause [2], & serue it forth.

[1] saweyster. Qu.
[2] stonde wel by the sause. Become thick with the sawce.


Take Pork and see it wel and grinde it smale and medle it wi ayren
& brede. ygrated. do erto powdour fort and safroun with pyner & salt.
take & close litull Balles in foiles [2] of sawge. wete it with a
batour of ayren & fry it. & serue it forth.

[1] Sawgeat. So named from the Sage, or _Sawge_
[2] foiles. leaves.


Take flour of pandemayn and medle it with white grece ouer the fyrer
in a chawfour [2] and do the batour erto queyntlich [3] urgh y
fyngours. or thurgh a skymour. and lat it a litul [4] quayle [5] a
litell so e er be hool erinne. And if er wilt colour it wi
alkenet yfoundyt. take hem up & cast erinne sugur, and serue hem

[1] Cryspes. Ms. Ed. No. 26. _Cryppys_, meaning _Crisps_, Chaucer
    having _crips_, by transposition, for _crisp_. In Kent _p_ is
    commonly put before the _s_, as _haps_ is _hasp_, _waps_ is _wasp_. V.
    Junius. V. _Happs_, and _Haspe_, and _Wasp_.
[2] chawfour. chaffing dish.
[3] quentlich'. nicely.
[4] a litul. Dele.
[5] quayle. an cool?


Take and make a foile of gode Past as thynne as Paper. kerue it out &
fry it in oile. oer in e [1] grece and e remnaunt [2], take hony
clarified and flaunne [3] erwith, alye hem up and serue hem forth.

[1] e grece. Dele _the_.
[2] e remnant, i. e. as for the remnant.
[3] flaunne. French _flau_, custard.


Take pork ysode. hewe it & bray it. do erto ayrenn. Raisouns sugur
and powdour of gyngur. powdour douce. and smale briddes eramong &
white grece. take prunes, safroun. & salt, and make a crust in a
trape & do er Fars [1] erin. & bake it wel & serue it forth.

[1] er Fars, r. e Fars.


Take and parboile Oynouns presse out e water & hewe hem smale. take
brede & bray it in a morter. and temper it up with Ayren. do erto
butter, safroun and salt. & raisouns corauns. & a litel sugur with
powdour douce. and bake it in a trape. & serue it forth.

[1] Ymbre. Ember.


Take a Crust ynche depe in a trape. take zolkes of Ayren rawe & chese
ruayn [2]. & medle it & e zolkes togyder. and do erto powdour
gyngur. sugur. safroun. and salt. do it in a trape, bake it and serue
it forth.

[1] de Bry. Qu. _Brie_, the country.
[2] Chese ruayn. Qu. of Roisen. V. ad 49.


Take Fyges & Raysouns. & waisshe hem in Wyne. and grinde hem smale
with apples & peres clene ypiked. take hem up and cast hem in a pot
wi wyne and sugur. take salwar Salmoun [2] ysode. oer codlyng, oer
haddok, & bray hem smal. & do erto white powdours & hool spices. &
salt. and see it. and whanne it is sode ynowz. take it up and do it
in a vessel and lat it kele. make a Coffyn an ynche depe & do e fars
erin. Plaunt it boue [3] with prunes and damysyns. take e stones
out, and wi dates quarte rede [4] dand piked clene. and couere the
coffyn, and bake it wel, and serue it forth.

[1] Brymlent. Perhaps Midlent or High Lent. _Bryme_, in Cotgrave, is

    the _midst_ of Winter. The fare is certainly lenten. A.S. [Anglo-
    Saxon: bryme]. Solennis, or beginning of Lent, from A.S. [Anglo-Saxon:
    brymm], ora, margo. Yet, after all, it may be a mistake for
[2] salwar Samoun. V. ad No. 98.
[3] plaunt it above. Stick it _above_, or on the top.
[4] quarte red. quartered.


Take Pork ysode and grynde it smale. tarde [2] harde eyrenn isode &
ygrounde and do erto with Chese ygronde. take gode powdour and hool
spices, sugur, safroun, and salt & do erto. make a coffyn as to feel
sayde [3] & do is erinne, & plaunt it with smale briddes istyned &
counyng. & hewe hem to smale gobettes & bake it as tofore. & serue it

[1] Tartes of Flesh. So we have _Tarte Poleyn_, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226.
    i.e. of Pullen, or Poultry.
[2] tarde, r. _take_. For see No. 169.
[3] to feel sayde. perhaps, _to hold the same_.


Take Veel ysode and grinde it smale. take harde Eyrenn isode and
yground & do erto with prunes hoole [1]. dates. icorue. pynes and
Raisouns coraunce. hool spices & powdour. sugur. salt, and make a
litell coffyn and do is fars erinne. & bake it & serue it forth.

[1] hoole, whole.


Take Eelys and Samoun and smyte hem on pecys. & stewe it [1] in
almaund mylke and verious. drawe up on almaund mylk wi e stewe.
Pyke out the bones clene of e fyssh. and save e myddell pece hoole
of e Eelys & grinde at ooer fissh smale. and do erto powdour,
sugur, & salt and grated brede. & fors e Eelys erwith erer as [2]
e bonys were medle e ooer dele of the fars & e mylk togider. and
colour it with saundres. make a crust in a trape as before. and bake
it erin and serue it forth.

[1] it. rather hem, i.e. them.
[2] ereras. where. V. No. 177.


Take and make a Crust in a trape. & take a cruddes and wryng out e
wheyze. and drawe hem urgh a straynour and put in e straynour
crustes. do erto sugur the ridde part & somdel [2] whyte of Ayrenn.
& shake erin blomes of elren [3]. & bake it up with curose [4] &
messe it forth.

[1] Sambucade. As made of the _Sambucus_, or Elder.
[2] Somdel. Some.
[3] Blom of Elren. Elder flowers.
[4] curose.


Take parsel, myntes [2], sauerey, & sauge, tansey, veruayn, clarry,
rewe, ditayn, fenel, southrenwode, hewe hem & grinde hem smale, medle
hem up with Ayrenn. do butter in a trape. & do e fars erto. & bake
it & messe it forth.

[1] Erbolat, i.e. Herbolade, a confection of herbs.
[2] myntes, mint.


Take ere ridde part of sowre Dokkes and flour erto. & bete it
togeder tyl it be as towh as eny lyme. cast erto salt. & do it in a
disshe holke [2] in e bothom, and let it out wi y finger
queynchche [3] in a chowfer [4] wi oile. & frye it wel. and whan it
is ynowhz: take it out and cast erto suger &c.

[1] Nysebek. Qu.
[2] holke. Qu. hollow.
[3] queynchche. an _queyntlich'_, as No. 162.
[4] Chowfer. chaffing dish, as No. 162.


Take e lire of Pork rawe. and grynde it smale. medle it up wi
powdre fort, safroun, and salt, and do erto Raisouns of Coraunce,
make balles erof. and wete it wele in white of ayrenn. & do it to
see in boillyng water. take hem up and put hem on a spyt. rost hem
wel and take parsel ygronde and wryng it up with ayren & a party of
flour. and lat erne [2] aboute e spyt. And if ou wilt, take for
parsel safroun, and serue it forth.

[1] Pomme dorryle. Contents, _pom dorryes_, recte, for MS. Ed. 42,
    has _Pommedorry_; and see No. 177. So named from the _balls_ and _the
    gilding_. "Pommes dorees, golden apples." Cotgrave. _Poundorroye_.
    MS. Ed. 58; but vide _Dorry_ in Gloss.

[2] erne. Qu.


Take and make e self fars [2]. but do erto pynes and sugur. take an
hole rowsted cok, pulle hym [3] & hylde [4] hym al togyder saue e
legges. take a pigg and hilde [5] hym fro e myddes dounward, fylle
him ful of e fars & sowe hym fast togider. do hym in a panne & see
hym wel. and whan ei bene isode: do hem on a spyt & rost it wele.
colour it with zolkes of ayren and safroun, lay eron foyles [6] of
gold and of siluer. and serue hit forth.

[1] Cotagres. This is a sumptuous dish. Perhaps we should read
    _Cokagres_, from the _cock_ and _grees_, or wild pig, therein used. V.
    _vyne grace_ in Gloss.
[2] self fars. Same as preceding Recipe.
[3] pulle hym, i.e. in pieces.
[4] hylde. cast.
[5] hilde. skin.
[6] foyles. leaves; of Laurel or Bay, suppose; gilt and silvered
    for ornament.


Take er mawe of e grete Swyne. and fyfe oer sex of pigges mawe.
fyll hem full of e self fars. & sowe hem fast, perboile hem. take
hem up & make smale prews [2] of gode past and frye hem. take ese
prews yfryed & see [3] hem icke in e mawes on e fars made after
[4] an urchoun withoute legges. put hem on a spyt & roost hem &
colour hem with safroun & messe hem forth.

[1] Hert rowee. Contents, _Hart rows_; perhaps from _heart_.
[2] prews. Qu. V. in Gloss.
[3] see. There is a fault here; it means stick.
[4] after, i. e. like.


Take Pottes of Ere lytell of half a quart and fyll hem
full of fars of pomme dorryes [2]. oer make with yn honde. oer in
a moolde pottes of e self fars. put hem in water & see hem up wel.
and whan ey buth ynowz. breke e pottes of ere & do e fars on e
spyt & rost hem wel. and whan ei buth yrosted. colour hem as pomme
dorryes. make of litull prewes [3] gode past, frye hem oer rost hem
wel in grece. & make erof Eerys [4] to pottes & colour it. and make
rosys [5] of gode past, & frye hem, & put e steles [6] in e hole
er [7] e spyt was. & colour it with whyte. oer rede. & serue it

[1] Potews. probably from the _pots_ employed.
[2] pomme dorryes. Vide ad No. 174.
[3] prewes. V. ad 176.
[4] eerys. Ears _for_ the pots. V. 185.
[5] rosys. roses.
[6] sleles. stalks.
[7] er. there, i.e. where. V. 170.


Take smale Sachellis of canuas and fille hem full of e same fars [2]
& see hem. and whan ey buth ynowz take of the canvas, rost hem &
colour hem &c.

[1] Sachus. I suppose _sacks_.
[2] same fars. viz. as 174.


Take Pork, see it and grynde it smale
wi sodden ayren. do erto gode powdours and hole spices and salt
with sugur. make erof smale balles, and cast hem in a batour [2] of
ayren. & wete hem in flour. and frye hem in grece as frytours [3].
and serue hem forth.

[1] Bursews. Different from _Bursen_ in No. 11; therefore qu. etymon.
[2] Batour. batter.
[3] frytours. fritters.


Take Spynoches. perboile hem in seyng water. take hem up and
presse . . . out of e water [2] and hem [3] in two. frye hem in oile
clene. & do erro powdour. & serue forth.

[1] Spynoches. Spinage, which we use in the singular.
[2] out of the water. dele _of_; or it may mean, _when out of the
[3] hem r. _hewe_.


Take benes and see hem almost til ey bersten. take and wryng out
er water clene. do erto Oynouns ysode and ymynced. and garlec
erwith. frye hem in oile. oer in grece. & do erto powdour douce. &
serue it forth.


Take Fyges and raisouns. pyke hem and waisshe hem in Wyne. grynde hem
wi apples and peeres. ypared and ypiked clene. do erto gode
powdours. and hole spices. make bailes erof. fryen in oile and serue
hem forth.

[1] Rysshews. _russhewses_, Contents. Qu.


Take Creme of Cowe mylke. oer of Almandes. do erto ayren with sugur,
safroun, and salt, medle it yfere. do it in a coffyn. of II. ynche
depe. bake it wel and serue it forth,

[1] Daryols. Qu.


Take fat Pork ysode. pyke it clene. grynde it smale. grynde Chese &
do erto. wi sugur and gode powdours. make a coffyn of an ynche depe.
and do is fars erin. make a thynne foile of gode past & kerue out
eroff smale poyntes [2]. frye hem in fars [3]. & bake it up &c.

[1] Flaumpeyns. _Flaumpens_, Contents. V. No. 113.
[2] Points, seems the same as _Prews_, No. 176.
[3] in fars, f. _in the fars_; and yet the Fars is disposed of before;
    ergo quare.


Take er lire of Pork and kerue it al to pecys. and hennes erwith
and do it in a panne and frye it & make a Coffyn as to [2] a pye
smale & do erinne. & do eruppon zolkes of ayrenn. harde. powdour of
gyngur and salt, couere it & fry it in grece. oer bake it wel and
serue it forth.

[1] Chewets. V. 186.
[2] as to, as for. V. No. 177.


Take Turbut. haddok. Codlyng. and hake. and see it. grynde it smale.
and do erto Dates. ygrounden. raysouns pynes. gode powdoer and salt.
make a Coffyn as tofore saide. close is erin. and frye it in oile.
oer stue it in gyngur. sugur. oer in wyne. oer bake it. & serue


Take Fyges iquarterid [2]. Raysouns hool dates and Almandes hoole.
and ryne [3] hem on a spyt and roost hem. and endore [4] hem as pomme
dorryes & serue hem forth.

[1] Hastletes. _Hasteletes_, Contents.
[2] iquarterid. iquartered.
[3] ryne. run.
[4] endore. endorse, MS. Ed. 42. II. 6. v. ad 147.


Take Fyges and Raisouns. pyke hem and waisshe hem clene, skalde hem
in wyne. grynde hem right smale, cast sugur in e self wyne. and
founde it togyder. drawe it up thurgh a straynour. & alye up e fruyt
erwith. take gode peerys and Apples. pare hem and take e best,
grynde hem smale and cast erto. set a pot on e fuyrer [2] wi oyle
and cast alle ise ynges erinne. and stere it warliche, and kepe it
wel fro brennyng. and whan it is fyned cast erto powdours of gynger
of canel. of galyngale. hool clowes flour of canel. & macys hoole.
cast erto pynes a litel fryed in oile & salt, and whan it is ynowz
fyned: take it up and do it in a vessel & lat it kele. and whan it is
colde: kerue out with a knyf smale pecys of e gretnesse & of e
length of a litel fyngur. & close it fast in gode past. & frye hen in
oile. & serue forth.

[1] Comadore. Qu.
[2] Fuyr. fire.


Take and make a foyle of gode past with a roller of a foot brode. &
lyngur[2] by cumpas. make iiii Coffyns of e self past uppon e
rolleres e gretnesse of e smale of yn Arme. of vi ynche depnesse.
make e gretust [3] in e myddell. fasten e foile in e mouth
upwarde. & fasten ee [4] oere foure in euery syde. kerue out
keyntlich kyrnels [5] above in e manere of bataiwyng [6] and drye
hem harde in an Ovene. oer in e Sunne. In e myddel Coffyn do a
fars of Pork with gode Pork & ayrenn rawe wi salt. & colour it wi
safroun and do in anoer Creme of Almandes. and helde [7] it in
anoer [8] creme of Cowe mylke with ayrenn. colour it with saundres.

anour manur. Fars of Fygur. of raysouns. of Apples. of Peeres. &
holde it in broun [9].

anoer manere. do fars as to frytours blanched. and colour it with
grene. put is to e ovene & bake it wel. & serue it forth with ew
ardaunt [10].

[1] Chastelets. Litlle castles, as is evident from the
    kernelling and the battlements mentioned. _Castles of jelly
    templewise made._ Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.
[2] lynger. longer.
[3] gretust. greatest.
[4] ee, i. e. thou.
[5] kyrnels. Battlements. V. Gloss. Keyntlich, quaintly, curiously. V.
[6] bataiwyng. embatteling.
[7] helde. put, cast.
[8] another. As the middle one and only two more are provided for,
    the two remaining were to be filled, I presume, in the same manner
[9] holde it broun. make it brown.
[10] ew ardaunt. hot water. _Eau_, water; anciently written _eue_.


Take a pece of fressh Flesh and do it in a pot for to see. or take a
pece of fressh Flessh and kerue it al to gobetes. do it in a pot to
see. & take e wose [2] of comfery & put it in e pot to e flessh &
it shal fasten anon, & so serue it forth.

[1] II. _Twey_, Contents.
[2] wose. Roots of comfrey are of a very glutinous nature. Quincy.
    Dispens. p. 100. _Wose_ is A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: paer], _humour_,
    juice. See Junius. v. _Wos_, and Mr. Strype's Life of Stow, p. VIII.

PUR FAIT YPOCRAS [1]. XX.IX. XI. Treys Unces de canett. & iii unces

de gyngeuer. spykenard de Spayn le pays dun denerer [2], garyngale
[3]. clowes, gylofre. poeurer long [4], noiez mugadez [5]. maziozame
[6] cardemonij [7] de chescun i. quart' douce [8] grayne & [9] de
paradys stour de queynel [10] de chescun dim [11] unce de toutes,
soit fait powdour &c.

[1] Pur fait Ypocras. Id est, _Pour faire Ypocras_; a whole pipe of
    which was provided for archbishop Nevill's feast about A.D. 1466, So
    that it was in vast request formerly.
[2] le pays d'un denerer, i.e. _le pays d'un Denier_.
[3] garyngale, i.e. _galyngale_.
[4] poeurer long, r. poiurer long, i.e. _poivre long_.
[5] mugadez, r. muscadez; but q. as the French is _muguette_. Nutmegs.
[6] maziozame, r. _marjorame_.
[7] Cardemonij, r. _Cardamones_.
[8] quartdouce, r. _d'once._. Five penny weights.
[9] &. dele.
[10] queynel. Perhaps _Canell_; but qu. as that is named before.
[11] dim. dimid.


Put Rys in water al a nyzt and at morowe waisshe hem clene, afterward
put hem to e fyre fort [2] ey berst & not to myche. ssithen [3]
take brawn of Capouns, or of hennes. soden & drawe [4] it smale.
after take mylke of Almandes. and put in to e Ryys & boile it. and
whan it is yboiled put in e brawn & alye it erwith. at it be wel
chargeaunt [5] and mung it fynelich' [6] wel at it sit not [7] to e
pot. and whan it is ynowz & chargeaunt. do erto sugur gode part,
put erin almandes. fryed in white grece. & dresse it forth.

[1] blank maunger. Very different from that we make now. V. 36.
[2] fyre fort. strong fire.
[3] ssithen. then.
[4] drawe. make.
[5] chargeaunt. stiff. So below, _ynowhz & chargeaunt_. V.193, 194. V.
[6] mung it fynelich' wel. stir it very well.
[7] sit not. adheres not, and thereby burns not. Used now in the


Take Brawn of Hennes or of Capouns ysoden withoute e skyn. & hewe
hem as smale as ou may. & grinde hem in a morter. after take gode
mylke of Almandes & put e brawn erin. & stere it wel togyder & do
hem to see. & take flour of Rys & amydoun & alay it. so at it be
chargeant. & do erto sugur a gode party. & a party of white grece.
and when it is put in disshes strewe uppon it blaunche powdour, and
enne put in blank desire and mawmenye [2] in disshes togider. And
serue forth.

[1] blank _Desne_. _Desire_, Contents; recte. V. Gloss. The Recipe in
    MS. Ed. 29 is much the same with this.
[2] Mawmenye. See No. 194.

Take e chese and of Flessh of Capouns or of Hennes. & hakke smale in
a morter. take mylke of Almandes with e broth of freissh Beef, oer
freissh flessh. & put the flessh in e mylke oer in the broth and set
hem to e frye [2]. & alye hem up with flour of Ryse. or gastbon [3].
or amydoun. as chargeant as with blanke desire. & with zolkes of ayren and
safroun for to make it zelow. and when it is dressit in disshes with
blank desire styk above clowes de gilofre. & strewe Powdour of
galyngale above. and serue it forth.

[1] Mawmenny. _Mawmoune_, Contents. _Maumene_ MS. Ed. 29. 30. vide No.
    193. See Preface for a _fac-simile_ of this Recipe.
[2] e frye. an fyre?
[3] gastbon. Qu.

THE PETY PERUAUNT [1]. XX.IX. XV. Take male Marow [2]. hole parade
[3] and kerue it rawe. powdour of Gynger. zolkes of Ayrenn, dates
mynced. raisouns of coraunce. salt a lytel. & loke at ou make y
past with zolkes of Ayren. & at no water come erto. and forme y
coffyn. and make up y past.

[1] pety peruaunt. a paste; therefore, perhaps, _paty_; but qu. the
    latter word.
[2] male Marow. Qu.
[3] parade. Qu.

PAYN PUFF [1]. XX.IX. XVI. Eodem modo fait payn puff. but make it
more tendre e past. and loke e past be rounde of e payn puf as a
coffyn & a pye.

[1] Payn puff. Contents has, _And the pete puant_.


[1] A blank was left in the original for a large _E_.


  "Antiquum hoc monumentum oblatum et missum est majestati vestra
  vicesimo septimo die mensis Julij, anno regno vestri falicissimi
  vicesimo viij ab humilimo vestro subdito, vestraque, majestati

  EDWARD STAFFORD, Hares domus subversa Buckinghamiens."

N.B. He was Lord Stafford and called Edward.

Edw. D. of Bucks beheaded 1521. 13 H. VIII.
Henry, restored in blood by H. VIII.; and again
 |                                    [1 Ed. VI.
Edw. aged 21, 1592; born 1592. 21. ob. 1525.
 |              21                     [f. 1625.
Edw. b. 1600. ----
              1571 born.


_Hic incipiunt universa servicia tam de carnibus quam de pissibus_


Nym clene Wete and bray it in a morter wel that the holys [2] gon al
of and seyt [3] yt til it breste and nym yt up. and lat it kele [4]
and nym fayre fresch broth and swete mylk of Almandys or swete mylk
of kyne and temper yt al. and nym the yolkys of eyryn [5]. boyle it a
lityl and set yt adoun and messe yt forthe wyth fat venyson and fresh

[1] See again, No. I. of the second part of this treatise.
[2] Hulls.
[3] Miswritten for _seyth_ or _sethe_, i.e. seeth.
[4] cool.
[5] eggs.


Nym wyte Pisyn and wasch hem and seth hem a good wyle sithsyn wasch
hem in golde [1] watyr unto the holys gon of alle in a pot and kever
it wel that no breth passe owt and boyle hem ryzt wel and do therto
god mylk of Almandys and a party of flowr of ris and salt and safron
and messe yt forthe.

[1] cold.


Cranys and Herons schulle be euarund [1] wyth Lardons of swyne and
rostyd and etyn wyth gyngynyr.

[1] Perhaps _enarmed_, or _enorned_. See Mr. Brander's Roll, No. 146.


Pecokys and Partrigchis schul ben yparboyld and lardyd and etyn wyth


Nym hennyn and porke and seth hem togedere nym the lyre [2] of the
hennyn and the porke and hakkyth finale and grynd hit al to dust and
wyte bred therwyth and temper it wyth the selve broth and wyth heyryn
and colure it with safroun and boyle it and disch it and cast theron
powder of peper and of gyngynyr and serve it forthe.

[1] V. Mortrews in Gloss.
[2] Flesh.


Schal be sodyn. Nym the lyre and brek it smal In a morter and peper
and wyte bred therwyth and temper it wyth ale and ley it wyth the
capoun. Nym hard sodyn eyryn and hewe the wyte smal and kaste thereto
and nym the zolkys al hole and do hem in a dysch and boyle the capoun
and colowre it wyth safroun and salt it and messe it forthe.


Schullyn be scaldyd and sodyn wyth porke and grynd pepyr and comyn
bred and ale and temper it wyth the selve broth and boyle and colowre
it wyth safroun and salt it and messe it forthe.

[1] Hens.


Schul be parboylyd and lardyd and rostid and nym onyons and myce hem
rizt smal and fry hem in wyte gres and grynd peper bred and ale and
the onions therto and coloure it wyth safroun and salt it and serve
it forth.

[1] Hares.
[1] Perhaps _Cinee_; for see No. 51.


Schul be hewe in gobbettys and sodyn with al the blod Nym bred piper
and ale and grynd togedere and temper it with the selve broth and
boyle it and salt it and serve it forthe.


Schul be sodyn and hakkyd in gobbettys and grynd gyngynyr galyngale
and canel. and temper it up with god almand mylk and boyle it and nym
macys and clowys and kest [2] therin and the conynggis also and salt
hym [3] and serve it forthe.

[1] Rabbits.
[2] Cast.
[3] _it_, or perhaps _hem_.


Nym hennys and schald hem wel. and seth hem after and nym the lyre
and hak yt smal and bray it with otyn grotys in a morter and with
wyte bred and temper it up wyth the broth Nym the grete bonys and
grynd hem al to dust and kest hem al in the broth and mak it thorw a
clothe and boyle it and serve it forthe.

[1] Cullis. V. Preface.


Nym the nomblys of the venysoun and wasch hem clene in water and salt
hem and seth hem in tweye waterys grynd pepyr bred and ale and temper
it wyth the secunde brothe and boyle it and hak the nomblys and do
theryn and serve it forthe.

[1] Umbles.


Nym kedys [1] and chekenys and hew hem in morsellys and seth hem in
almand mylk or in kyne mylke grynd gyngyner galingale and cast therto
and boyle it and serve it forthe.

[1] Kids.


Nym rys and lese hem and wasch hem clene and do thereto god almande
mylk and seth hem tyl they al to brest and than lat hem kele and nym
the lyre of the hennyn or of capouns and grynd hem smal kest therto
wite grese and boyle it Nym blanchyd almandys and safroun and set
hem above in the dysche and serve yt forthe.

[1] Blanc-manger. See again, No. 33, 34. II. No. 7. Chaucer writes it


Nym eyren wyth al the wyte and myse bred and schepys [2] talwe as
gret as dyses [3] grynd peper and safroun and cast therto and do hit
in the schepis wombe seth it wel and dresse it forthe of brode leches

[1] Frenchemulle d'un mouton. A sheeps call, or kell. Cotgrave.
    Junius, v. _Moil_, says, "a French moile Chaucero est cibus
    delicatior, a dish made of marrow and grated bread."
[2] Sheep's fat.
[3] dice; square bits, or bits as big as dice.


Nym the tharmys [1] of a pygge and wasch hem clene in water and salt
and seth hem wel and than hak hem smale and grynd pepyr and safroun
bred and ale and boyle togedere Nym wytys of eyrynn and knede it
wyth flour and mak smal pelotys [2] and fry hem with wyte grees and
do hem in disches above that othere mete and serve it forthe.

[1] Rops, guts, puddings
[2] Balls, pellets, from the French _pelote._


Nym appelyn and seth hem and lat hem kele and make hem thorw a clothe
and on flesch dayes kast therto god fat breyt [2] of Bef and god wyte
grees and sugar and safroun and almande mylk on fysch dayes oyle de
olyve and gode powdres [3] and serve it forthe.

[1] See No. 35.
[2] Breth, i. e. broth. See No. 58.
[3] Spices ground small. See No. 27, 28. 35. 58. II. No. 4. 17. or
    perhaps of Galingale. II. 20. 24.


Nym Veel and seth it wel and hak it smal and grynd bred peper and
safroun and do thereto and frye yt and presse it wel upon a bord and
dresse yt forthe.

[1] a Fraise


Nym flowre and eyryn and grynd peper and safroun and mak therto a
batour and par aplyn and kyt hem to brode penys [2] and kest hem
theryn and fry hem in the batour wyth fresch grees and serve it

[1] Fritters.
[2] Pieces as broad as pennies, or perhaps pecys.


Nym Porke and seth it wel and hak yt smal nym eyryn wyth al the wytys
and swyng hem wel al togedere and kast god swete mylke thereto and
boyle yt and messe it forthe.

[1] Quare.


Nym eyryn wyth al the wytys and mice bred grynd pepyr and safroun and
do therto and temper yt wyth god fresch broth of porke and boyle it
wel and messe yt forthe.


Nym and schald hem wel and hew hem wel in gobettys al rawe and seth
hem in her owyn grees and cast therto wyn or ale a cuppe ful and myce
onyons smal and do therto and boyle yt and salt yt and messe yt

[1] Gese.
[2] Hochepot. Vide Gloss.


Nym water and welle [1] yt and brek eyryn and kast theryn and grynd
peper and safroun and temper up wyth swete mylk and boyle it and
hakke chese smal and cast theryn and messe yt forthe.

[1] Quare the meaning.


Tak checonys and schald hem and seth hem and grvnd gyngen' other
pepyr and comyn and temper it up wyth god mylk and do the checonys
theryn and boyle hem and serve yt forthe.

[1] Vide ad No. 60 of the Roll.


Nym swete mylk and do yt in a panne nyn [1] eyryn wyth al the wyte
and swyng hem wel and cast therto and colowre yt wyth safroun and
boyl it tyl yt wexe thikke and thanne seth [2] yt thorw a culdore [3]
and nym that, leyyth [4] and presse yt up on a bord and wan yt ys
cold larde it and scher yt on schyverys and roste yt on a grydern
and serve yt forthe.

[1] Read _nym_.
[2] strain. See No. 27.
[3] Cuilinder.
[4] That which is left in the cullinder.


Nym flour and wytys of eyryn sugur other hony and sweyng togedere and
mak a batour nym wyte grees and do yt in a posnet and cast the batur
thereyn and stury to thou have many [2] and tak hem up and messe hem
wyth the frutours and serve forthe.

[1] Meaning, _crisps_. V. Gloss.
[2] It will run into lumps, I suppose.


Nym Hennys and seth hem wyth god Buf and wan hi ben sodyn nym the
Hennyn and do awey the bonys and bray smal yn a mortar and temper yt
wyth the broth and seth yt thorw a culdore and cast therto powder of
gyngenyr and sugur and graynys of powmis gernatys [2] and boyle yt
and dresse yt in dysches and cast above clowys gylofres [3] and maces
and god powder [4] serve yt forthe.

[1] Quare the meaning.
[2] Pomegranates. V. No. 39.
[3] Not clove-gilliflowers, but _cloves_. See No. 30, 31, 40.
[4] See No. 17, note [3].


Nym caponys and schald hem nym a penne and opyn the skyn at the hevyd
[1] and blowe hem tyl the skyn ryse from the flesshe and do of the
skyn al hole and seth the lyre of Hennyn and zolkys of heyryn and god
powder and make a Farsure [2] and fil ful the skyn and parboyle yt
and do yt on a spete and rost yt and droppe [3] yt wyth zolkys of
eyryn and god powder rostyng and nym the caponys body and larde yt
and roste it and nym almaunde mylk and amydoun [4] and mak a batur
and droppe the body rostyng and serve yt forthe.

[1] Head. Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: heofod] and [Anglo-Saxon: hevod], hence
    our _Head_.
[2] stuffing.
[3] baste.
[4] Vide Gloss.


Tak brann [2] of caponys other of hennys and the thyes [3] wythowte
the skyn and kerf hem smal als thou mayst and grynd hem smal in a
morter and tak mylk of Almaundys and do yn the branne and grynd hem
thanne togedere and and seth hem togeder' and tak flour of rys other
amydoun and lye it that yt be charchant and do therto sugur a god
parti and a party of wyt grees and boyle yt and wan yt ys don in
dyschis straw upon blank poudere and do togedere blank de sury and
manmene [4] in a dysch and serve it forthe.

[1] Vide _Blank Desire_ in Gloss.
[2] Perhaps _brawn_, the brawny part. See No. 33, and the Gloss.
[3] Thighs.
[4] See the next number. Quare _Mawmeny_.


Tak the thyys [2] other the flesch of the caponys fede [3] hem and
kerf hem smal into a morter and tak mylk of Almandys wyth broth of
fresch Buf and do the flesch in the mylk or in the broth and do yt to
the fyre and myng yt togedere wyth flour of Rys othere of wastelys
als charchaut als the blank de sure and wyth the zolkys of eyryn for
to make it zelow and safroun and wan yt ys dressyd in dysches wyth
blank de sure straw upon clowys of gelofre [4] and straw upon powdre
of galentyn and serve yt forthe.

[1] Vide Number 29, and the Gloss.
[2] Thighs.
[3] Quare.
[4] See No. 27, note [3].


Tak Partrichys rostyd and checonys and qualys rostyd and larkys ywol
and demembre the other and mak a god cawdel and dresse the flesch in
a dysch and strawe powder of galentyn therupon. styk upon clowys of
gelofre and serve yt forthe.


Tak chekenys or hennys or othere flesch and mak the colowre als red
as any blod and tak peper and kanel and gyngyner bred [1] and grynd
hem in a morter and a porcion of bred and mak that bruer thenne and
do that flesch in that broth and mak hem boyle togedere and stury it
wel and tak eggys and temper hem wyth Jus of Parcyle and wryng hem
thorwe a cloth and wan that bruet is boylyd do that therto and meng
tham togedere wyth fayr grees so that yt be fat ynow and serve yt

[1] This is still in use, and, it seems, is an old compound.


Do Ris in water al nyzt and upon the morwe wasch hem wel and do hem
upon the fyre for to [2] they breke and nozt for to muche and tak
Brann [3] of Caponis sodyn and wel ydraw [4] and smal and tak almaund
mylk and boyle it wel wyth ris and wan it is yboylyd do the flesch
therin so that it be charghaunt and do therto a god party of sugure
and wan it ys dressyd forth in dischis straw theron blaunche Pouder
and strik [5] theron Almaundys fryed wyt wyte grece [6] and serve yt

[1] See No. 14.
[2] till. _for_, however, abounds.
[3] See No. 29. note d.
[4] Perhaps, _strained_. See No. 49; and Part II. No. 33.
[5] Perhaps, _stik_, i.e. stick; but see 34.
[6] Grese. Fat, or lard.


Tak Flesch of Caponys and of Pork sodyn kerf yt smal into a morter
togedere and bray that wel. and temper it up wyth broth of Caponys
and of Pork that yt be wel charchaunt also the crem of Almaundys and
grynd egges and safroun or sandres togedere that it be coloured and
straw upon Powder of Galentyn and strik thereon clowys and maces and
serve it forthe.


Tak Applys and seth hem and let hem kele and after mak hem thorwe a
cloth and do hem im a pot and kast to that mylk of Almaundys wyth god
broth of Buf in Flesch dayes do bred ymyed [2] therto. And the fisch
dayes do therto oyle of olyve and do therto sugur and colour it wyth
safroun and strew theron Powder and serve it forthe.

[1] See No. 17.
[2] ymyced, i.e. _minced_.


Tak wyte wyn and a party of water and safroun and gode spicis and
flesch of Piggys or of Hennys or fresch Fisch and boyle them togedere
and after wan yt ys boylyd and cold dres yt in dischis and serve yt

[1] meat jelly.


Tak mulbery [2] and bray hem in a morter and wryng [3] hem thorth a
cloth and do hem in a pot over the fyre and do thereto fat bred and
wyte gresse and let it nazt boyle no ofter than onys and do thereto a
god party of sugur and zif yt be nozt ynowe colowrd brey mulburus and
serve yt forthe.

[1] Morrey. Part II. No. 26.
[2] This is to be understood pluraly, _quasi_ mulberries.
[2] Read _wryng_. For see part II. No. 17. 2B. Chaucer, v. _wronge_
    and _ywrong_.


Tak water and do it in a panne to the fyre and lat yt sethe and after
tak eggs and brek hem and cast hem in the water and after tak a chese
and kerf yt on fowr partins and cast in the water and wanne the chese
and the eggys ben wel sodyn tak hem owt of the water and wasch hem in
clene water and tak wastel breed and temper yt wyth mylk of a kow.
and after do yt over the fyre and after forsy yt wyth gyngener and
wyth cornyn and colowr yt wyth safroun and lye yt wyth eggys and oyle
the sewe wyth Boter and kep wel the chese owt and dresse the sewe and
dymo [1] eggys thereon al ful and kerf thy chese in lytyl schyms and
do hem in the sewe wyth eggys and serve yt forthe.

[1] Perhaps, _do mo_, i.e. put more.


Tak god Almaunde mylk and lat yt boyle and do ther'in amydoun wyth
flowr of Rys and colowr yt wyth safroun and after dresse yt wyth
graynis of Poungarnetts [1] other wyth reysens zyf thow hast non
other and tak sugur and do theryn and serve it forthe.

[1] Vide No. 27.

XIV. For to make Fruturs [1].

Tak crommys [2] of wyte bred and the flowris of the swete Appyltre
and zolkys of Eggys and bray hem togedere in a morter and temper yt
up wyth wyte wyn and mak yt to sethe and wan yt is thykke do thereto
god spicis of gyngener galyngale canel and clowys gelosre and serve
yt forth;

[1] Fritters.
[2] Crumbs.

XLI. For to make Rosee [1].

Tak the flowris of Rosys and wasch hem wel in water and after bray
hem wel in a morter and than tak Almondys and temper hem and seth hem
and after tak flesch of capons or of hennys and hac yt smale and than
bray hem wel in a morter and than do yt in the Rose [2] so that the
flesch acorde wyth the mylk and so that the mete be charchaunt and
after do yt to the fyre to boyle and do thereto sugur and safroun
that yt be wel ycolowrd and rosy of levys and of the forseyde flowrys
and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide No. 47.
[2] i.e. Rosee.


Tak Buff and hewe yt smal al raw and cast yt in a morter and grynd yt
nozt to smal tak safroun and grynd therewyth wan yt ys grounde tak
the wyte of the eyryn zyf yt be nozt styf. Cast into the Buf pouder
of Pepyr olde resyns and of coronse set over a panne wyth fayr water
and mak pelotys of the Buf and wan the water and the pelots ys wel
yboylyd and [2] set yt adoun and kele yt and put yt on a broche and
rost yt and endorre yt wyth zolkys of eyryn and serve yt forthe.

[1] Vide No. 58.
[2] dele _and_.


Nym the tonge of the rether [2] and schalde and schawe [3] yt wel and
rizt clene and seth yt and sethe nym a broche [4] and larde yt wyth
lardons and wyth clowys and gelofre and do it rostyng and drop yt wel
yt rostyd [5] wyth zolkys of eyrin and dresse it forthe.

[1] Neat's Tongue. _Make_ signifies _to dress_, as II. 12.
[2] The ox or cow. Lye in Jun. Etymolog. v. _Rother_.
[3] Shave, scrape.
[4] A larding-pin.
[5] Pehaps, _wyle it rostyth_.


Nym swynys fet and eyr [1] and make hem clene and seth hem alf wyth
wyn and half wyth water cast mycyd onyons thereto and god spicis and
wan they be ysodyn nym and rosty hem in a grydere wan it is yrostyd
kest thereto of the selve broth hy lyed wyth amydoun and anyeyd
onyons [2] and serve yt forth.

[1] To be understood plurally, _Ears_.
[2] Miswritten for _mycyd_, i. e. minced onyons.


Nym god fresch flesch wat maner so yt be and hew yt in smale morselys
and seth yt wyth gode fresch buf and cast thereto gode mynced onyons
and gode spicerye and alyth [2] wyth eyryn and boyle and dresse yt

[1] Vide No. 52.
[2] Stiffen, thicken it. See No. 44. where _lyed_ has that sense. See
    also 46.


Nym the flowrys of the haw thorn clene gaderyd and bray hem al to
dust and temper hem wyth Almaunde mylk and aly yt wyth amydoun and
wyth eyryn wel rykke [2] and boyle it and messe yt forth and flowrys
and levys abovyn on [3].

[1] This dish, no doubt, takes its name from _Spina_, of which it is
[2] Read, ykke, _thykke_.
[3] It means _laid upon it_.


Nym pyggus and hennys and other maner fresch flesch and hew yt in
morselys and seth yt in wyth wyn and [2] gyngyner and galyngale and
gelofre and canel [3] and bray yt wel and kest thereto and alye yt
wyth amydoun other wyth flowr of rys.

[1] Vide No. 41.
[2] Perhaps, _in wyn with_.
[3] Cinamon. Vide Gloss.


Nym etemele and bynd yt in a fayr lynnen clowt and lat yt honge in
the pot so that yt thowche nozt the bottym and lat it hongy thereynne
a god wyle and seh [2] set yt fro the fyre and let yt kele and yt
schal be fresch ynow wythoute any other maner licowr ydo thereto.

[1] id est, _too_.
[2] Read, seth, i.e. then.


Tak Fygys and reysyns and wyn and grynd hem togeder tak and draw hem
thorw a cloth and do thereto powder of Alkenet other of rys and do
thereto a god quantite of pepir and vyneger and boyle it togeder and
messe yt and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide Part II. No. 1. 28.


Tak Almaundys and mak god mylk and temper wyth god wyneger clene tak
reysynys and boyle hem in clene water and tak the reysynis and tak
hem owt of the water and boyle hem wyth mylk and zyf thow wyl colowr
yt wyth safron and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide ad Part II. No. 21. There are no eggs concerned, so no doubt
    it should be _Eger Dows_. Vide Gloss.


Tak a mallard and pul hym drye and swyng over the fyre draw hym but
lat hym touche no water and hew hym in gobettys and do hym in a pot
of clene water boyle hem wel and tak onyons and boyle and bred and
pepyr and grynd togedere and draw thorw a cloth temper wyth wyn and
boyle yt and serve yt forth.

[1] See No. 8.


Tak veel and boyle it tak zolkys of eggys and mak hem thykke tak
macis and powdre of gyngyner and powder of peper and boyle yt togeder
and messe yt forth.

[1] Vide No. 45.


Tak Parsile and Ysop and Sauge and hak yt smal boil it in wyn and in

water and a lytyl powdre of peper and messe yt forth.

[1] _Deer_ or _Roes_ are not mentioned, as in Mr. Brander's Roll, No.
    14, ergo quare. It is a meager business. Can it mean _Rue-Broth_ for


Tak the lyre of the fresch Buf and bet it al in pecis and bred and
fry yt in fresch gres tak it up and and drye it and do yt in a vessel
wyth wyn and sugur and powdre of clowys boyle yt togedere tyl the
flesch have drong the liycoure and take the almande mylk and quibibz
macis and clowys and boyle hem togedere tak the flesch and do thereto
and messe it forth.


Tak hoggys fet other pyggys other erys other partrichys other
chiconys and do hem togedere and serh [2] hem in a pot and do hem in
flowre of canel and clowys other or grounde [3] do thereto vineger
and tak and do the broth in a clene vessel of al thys and tak the
Flesch and kerf yt in smal morselys and do yt therein tak powder of
galyngale and cast above and lat yt kels tak bronches of the lorer
tre and styk over it and kep yt al so longe as thou wilt and serve yt

[1] Jelly.
[2] se, i. e. _seeth_.
[3] Not clearly expressed. It means either Cinamon or Cloves, and
    either in flour or ground.


Tak venisoun wan yt ys newe and cuver it hastely wyth Fern that no
wynd may come thereto and wan thou hast ycuver yt wel led yt hom and
do yt in a soler that fonne ne wynd may come thereto and dimembre it
and do yt in a clene water and lef yt there half a day and after do
yt up on herdeles for to drie and wan yt ys drye tak salt and do
after thy venisoun axit [1] and do yt boyle in water that yt be other
[2] so salt als water of the see and moche more and after lat the
water be cold that it be thynne and thanne do thy Venisoun in the
water and lat yt be therein thre daies and thre nyzt [3] and after
tak yt owt of the water and salt it wyth drie salt ryzt wel in a
barel and wan thy barel ys ful cuver it hastely that sunne ne wynd
come thereto.

[1] as thy venison requires. See Gloss. to Chaucer for _axe_.
[2] Dele.
[3] A plural, as in No. 57.


Tak the Venisoun that ys rest and do yt in cold water and after mak
an hole in the herthe and lat yt be thereyn thre dayes and thre nyzt
and after tak yt up and spot yt wel wyth gret salt of peite [2] there
were the restyng ys and after lat yt hange in reyn water al nyzt or

[1] Restiness. It should be rather _restyng_. See below.
[2] Pierre, or Petre.


Tak Partrichis wit [2] longe filettis of Pork al raw and hak hem wel
smale and bray hem in a morter and wan they be wel brayed do thereto
god plente of pouder and zolkys of eyryn and after mak thereof a
Farsure formed of the gretnesse of a onyoun and after do it boyle in
god breth of Buf other of Pork after lat yt kele and after do it on a
broche of Hasel and do them to the fere to roste and after mak god
bature of floure and egge on bature wyt and another zelow and do
thereto god plente of sugur and tak a fethere or a styk and tak of
the bature and peynte thereon above the applyn so that on be wyt and
that other zelow wel colourd.

[1] Vide No. 42.
[2] with.


Hic incipit Servicium de Pissibus_ [1].

[1] See p. 1


Tak Lucys [2] or Tenchis and hak hem smal in gobette and fry hem in
oyle de olive and syth nym vineger and the thredde party of sugur and
myncyd onyons smal and boyle al togedere and cast thereyn clowys
macys and quibibz and serve yt forthe.

[1] See No. 21 below, and part I. No. 50. [2] Lucy, I presume, means
    the _Pike_; so that this fish was known here long before the reign of
    H. VIII. though it is commonly thought otherwise. V. Gloss.


Tak pyg' or Tenchis or other maner fresch fysch and fry yt wyth oyle
de olive and syth nym the crustys of wyt bred and canel and bray yt
al wel in a mortere and temper yt up wyth god wyn and cole [2] yt
thorw an hersyve and that yt be al cole [3] of canel and boyle yt and
cast therein hole clowys and macys and quibibz and do the fysch in
dischis and rape [4] abovyn and dresse yt forthe.

[1] Vide No. 49.
[2] Strain, from Lat. _colo_.
[3] Strained, or cleared.
[4] This Rape is what the dish takes its name from. Perhaps means
    _grape_ from the French _raper_. Vide No. 28.


Nym Lucys or tenchis and hak hem in morsell' and fry hem tak vyneger
and the thredde party of sugur myncy onyons smal and boyle al togedyr
cast ther'yn macis clowys quibibz and serve yt forth.


Nym Rys and bray hem [1] wel and temper hem up wyth almaunde mylk and
boyle yt nym applyn and par' hem and sher hem smal als dicis and cast
hem ther'yn after the boylyng and cast sugur wyth al and colowr yt
wyth safroun and cast ther'to pouder and serve yt forthe.

[1] Rice, as it consists of grains, is here considered as a plural.
    See also No. 5. 7, 8.


Nym rys and bray hem ryzt wel in a morter and cast ther'to god
Almaunde mylk and sugur and salt boyle yt and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide Gloss.


Nym onyons and mynce hem smale and fry hem in oyl dolyf Nym wyn and
boyle yt wyth the onyouns roste wyte bred and do yt in dischis and
god Almande mylk also and do ther'above and serve yt forthe.


Tak a pound of rys les hem wel and wasch and seth tyl they breste and
lat hem kele and do ther'to mylk of to pound of Almandys nym the

Perche or the Lopuster and boyle yt and kest sugur and salt also
ther'to and serve yt forth.

[1] See note on No. 14. of Part I.


Tak Rys and les hem and wasch hem clene and seth hem tyl they breste
and than lat hem kele and seth cast ther'to Almand mylk and colour it
wyth safroun and boyle it and messe yt forth.


Schal be latyn blod atte Navel and schald yt and rost yt and ley yt
al hole up on a Plater and zyf hym forth wyth Galentyn that be mad of
Galyngale gyngener and canel and dresse yt forth.

[1] This is a made or compounded thing. See both here, and in the
    next Number, and v. Gloss.


Yt schal be stoppit [2] over nyzt in lews water and in braan and
flowe and sodyn and pyl onyons and seth hem and ley hem al hol by the
Lomprey and zif hem forthe wyth galentyne makyth [3] wyth strong
vyneger and wyth paryng of wyt bred and boyle it al togeder' and
serve yt forthe.

[1] See note [1] on the last Number.
[2] Perhaps, _steppit_, i. e. steeped. See No. 12.
[3] Perhaps, _makyd_, i.e. made.


They schulle be schaldyd and ysode and ybrulyd upon a gredern and
grynd peper and safroun and do ther'to and boyle it and do the
Lomprey ther'yn and serve yt forth.


He schal be shorn in besys [1] and stepyd [2] over nyzt and sodyn
longe as Flesch and he schal be etyn in venegar.

[1] Perhaps, _pesys_, i.e. pieces.
[2] Qu. _steppit_, i.e. steeped.


They schal be fleyn and sodyn and rostyd upon a gredern and grynd
Peper and Safroun and ale boyle it wel and do the sole in a plater
and the bruet above serve it forth.


They schul be schallyd [1] and ysod in clene water grynd peper
safroun bred and ale and temper it wyth Broth do the Oystryn
ther'ynne and boyle it and salt it and serve it forth.

[1] Have shells taken off.


They schul be flayn and ket in gobett' and sodyn and grynd peper and
safroun other myntys and persele and bred and ale and temper it wyth
the broth and boyle it and serve it forth.


He schal be rostyd in his scalys in a ovyn other by the Feer under a
panne and etyn wyth Veneger.


Tak Prunys fayrist wasch hem wel and clene and frot hem wel in syve
for the Jus be wel ywronge and do it in a pot and do ther'to wyt gres
and a party of sugur other hony and mak hem to boyle togeder' and mak
yt thykke with flowr of rys other of wastel bred and wan it is sodyn
dresse it into dischis and strew ther'on powder and serve it forth.


Tak Chiryes at the Fest of Seynt John the Baptist and do away the
stonys grynd hem in a morter and after frot hem wel in a seve so that
the Jus be wel comyn owt and do than in a pot and do ther'in feyr
gres or Boter and bred of wastrel ymyid [1] and of sugur a god party
and a porcioun of wyn and wan it is wel ysodyn and ydressyd in
Dyschis stik ther'in clowis of Gilofr' and strew ther'on sugur.

[1] Perhaps, _ymycid_, i.e. minced; or _mycd_, as in No. 19.


Tak the zolkys of Eggs sodyn and temper it wyth mylk of a kow and do
ther'to Comyn and Safroun and flowr' of ris or wastel bred mycd and
grynd in a morter and temper it up wyth the milk and mak it boyle and
do ther'to wit [2] of Egg' corvyn smale and tak fat chese and kerf
ther'to wan the licour is boylyd and serve it forth.

[1] Vide Note [1] on No. 29. of Part I.
[2] white. So _wyt_ is _white_ in No. 21. below.


Tak tryd [1] gyngener and Safroun and grynd hem in a morter and
temper hem up wyth Almandys and do hem to the fir' and wan it boylyth
wel do ther'to zolkys of Egg' sodyn and fat chese corvyn in gobettis
and wan it is dressid in dischis strawe up on Powder of Galyngale and
serve it forth.

[1] It appears to me to be _tryd_. Can it be _fryd_?


Tak god mylk of Almandys and rys and wasch hem wel in a feyr' vessel
and in fayr' hoth water and after do hem in a feyr towayl for to drie
and wan that they be drye bray hem wel in a morter al to flowr' and
afterward tak two partyis and do the half in a pot and that other
half in another pot and colowr that on wyth the safroun and lat that
other be wyt and lat yt boyle tyl it be thykke and do ther'to a god
party of sugur and after dresse yt in twe dischis and loke that thou
have Almandys boylid in water and in safroun and in wyn and after
frie hem and set hem upon the fyre sethith mete [2] and strew ther'on
sugur that yt be wel ycolouryt [3] and serve yt forth.

[1] See Part II. No. I; and Part I. No. 50.
[2] Seth it mete, i.e. seeth it properly.
[3] Coloured. See No. 28. below.


Tak wite benes and seth hem in water and bray the benys in a morter
al to nozt and lat them sethe in almande mylk and do ther'in wyn and
hony and seth [1] reysons in wyn and do ther'to and after dresse yt

[1] i.e. Seeth.


Tak gode Applys and gode Spycis and Figys and reysons and Perys and
wan they are wel ybrayed colourd [1] wyth Safroun wel and do yt in a
cofyn and do yt forth to bake wel.

[1] Perhaps, _coloure_.


Tak Figys and Reysons and do awey the Kernelis and a god party of
Applys and do awey the paryng of the Applis and the Kernelis and bray
hem wel in a morter and temper hem up with Almande mylk and menge hem
wyth flowr of Rys that yt be wel chariaunt and strew ther'upon powder
of Galyngale and serve yt forth.


Mak the Cowche of fat chese and gyngener and Canel and pur' crym of
mylk of a Kow and of Helys ysodyn and grynd hem wel wyth Safroun and
mak the chowche of Canel and of Clowys and of Rys and of gode Spycys
as other Tartys fallyth to be.


Requir' de Carnibus ut supra [2].

[1] Vide Part I. No. 37.
[2] Part I. No. 37.


Tak god Flowr and mak a Past and tak god mylk of Almandys and flowr
of rys other amydoun and boyle hem togeder' that they be wel chariaud
wan yt is boylid thykke take yt up and ley yt on a feyr' bord so that
yt be cold and wan the Cofyns ben makyd tak a party of and do upon
the coffyns and kerf hem in Schiveris and do hem in god mylk of
Almandys and Figys and Datys and kerf yt in fowr partyis and do yt to
bake and serve yt forth.

[1] Perhaps, _Flawnes_, or Custards. Chaucer, vide _Slaunis_. Fr.


Tak the Crustys of wyt bred and reysons and bray hem wel in a morter
and after temper hem up wyth wyn and wryng hem thorw a cloth and do
ther'to Canel that yt be al colouryt of canel and do ther'to hole
clowys macys and quibibz the fysch schal be Lucys other Tenchis fryid
or other maner Fysch so that yt be fresch and wel yfryed and do yt in
Dischis and that rape up on and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide Part I. No. 49.


Tak an hundred onyons other an half and tak oyle de Olyf and boyle
togeder' in a Pot and tak Almande mylk and boyle yt and do ther'to.
Tak and make a thynne Paast of Dow and make therof as it were ryngis
tak and fry hem in oyle de Olyve or in wyte grees and boil al


Tak the mylk of the Hasel Notis boyl the wete [2] wyth the aftermelk
til it be dryyd and tak and coloured [3] yt wyth Safroun and the
ferst mylk cast ther'to and boyle wel and serve yt forth.

[1] Fishday.
[2] white.
[3] Perhaps, _colour_.


Tak Almande mylk and Flowre of Rys. Tak thereto sugur and boyle thys
togedere and dische yt and tak Almandys and wet hem in water of Sugur
and drye hem in a panne and plante hem in the mete and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide ad No. 29. of Part I.


Take Hony and Rotys of Radich and grynd yt smal in a morter and do yt
thereto that hony a quantite of broun sugur and do thereto. Tak
Powder of Peper and Safroun and Almandys and do al togedere boyl hem
long and hold [1] yt in a wet bord and let yt kele and messe yt and
do yt forth [2].

[1] i.e. _keep_, as in next Number.
[2] This Recipe is ill expressed.


Tak Pikys and spred hem abord and Helys zif thou hast fle hem and ket
hem in gobettys and seth hem in alf wyn [2] and half in water. Tak up
the Pykys and Elys and hold hem hote and draw the Broth thorwe a
Clothe do Powder of Gyngener Peper and Galyngale and Canel into the
Broth and boyle yt and do yt on the Pykys and on the Elys and serve
yt forth.

[1] This is so uncertain in the original, that I can only guess at it.
[2] Perhaps, _alf in wyn_, or dele _in_ before _water_.



The Numbers relate to the order of the Recipes.

N.B. Many words are now written as one, which formerly were divided,
as al so, up on, &c. Of these little notice is taken in the Index,
but I mention it here once for all.

Our orthography was very fluctuating and uncertain at this time, as
appears from the different modes of spelling the same words, v. To
gedre; v. wayshe; v. ynowkz; v. chargeant; v. coraunte; &c.


A. abounds, a gode broth, 5. 26, al a nyzt, 192. _in_. a two, 62.

an. and. passim.

Astir. Proem, like, 176, Wiclif.

Aray. Dress, set forth, 7. Chaucer.

Alf. MS. Ed. 45. II. 33. half.

Alye it. 7. 33. mix, thicken, hence _alloy_ of metals. from French
_allayer_. alay, 22. aly, MS. Ed. 46. See Junij Etymolog. v. Alaye.
lye. here No. 15. lyed. thickened. MS. Ed. 44, 45. Randle Holme
interprets lyth or lything by thickening. hence lyour. a mixture, 11.
alith_ for alyed. MS. Editor. No. 45.

Awey. MS. Ed. 27. II. 18. away.

Auance. 6. forte Avens. _Caryophylla_, Miller, Gard. Dict.

Axe. MS. Ed. No. 56. Chaucer.

Ayren. v. Eyren.

Al, Alle. 23. 53. Proem. All. Chaucer, _al to brest_. all burst. MS.
Ed. No. 14.

Als. MS. Editor. No. 29. Chaucer, in v. It means _as_.

Almandes. 17. very variously written at this time, Almaunde, Almandys,
Almaundys, Almondes, all which occur in MS. Ed. and mean Almond or

Almaund mylke. 9. Almonds blanched and drawn thickish with good
broth or water, No. 51. is called _thyk mylke_, 52. and is called
after Almaunde mylke, first and second milk, 116. Almaunds
unblaunched, ground, and drawn with good broth, is called mylke, 62.
Cow's milk was sometimes used instead of it, as MS. Ed. I. 13. Creme
of Almands how made, 85. Of it, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. We hear
elsewhere of Almond-butter, v. Butter.

Azeyn. 24. again. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 281. alibi. Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-
Saxon: Azen].

Aneys, Anyse, 36. 137. Aneys in confit rede other whyt, 36. 38. i.e.
Anis or Aniseed confectioned red, or white, used for garnish, 58.

Amydon. 37. v. ad locum.

Almony. 47. v. ad locum.

Almayne. 71. Germany, v. ad loc. MS. Editor, No. 2. 31.

Alkenet. 47. A species of Buglos. Quincey, Dispens. p. 51. 62. used
for colouring, 51. 84. fryed and yfoundred, or yfondyt, 62. 162.

Anoon. 53. Anon, immediately. Wiclif.

Arn. MS. Ed. II. 23. are. Chaucer, v. _arne_.

Adoun. 59. 85. down. v. Chaucer, voce _adoune_. MS. Edit. No. I.

Avysement. Proem. Advice, Direction. Chaucer. French.

Aymers. 72. Embers. Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: aemyrian], Cineres. Belg.

Aquapatys. 75. a Mess or Dish.

Alker. Rys Alker. MS. Ed. II. 24.

Appulmoy. 79. a dish. v. ad loc. Appelyn, Applys,

Apples. MS. Ed. 17. 35.

Abrode. 85. abrod. MS. Ed. II. 33. abroad. So _brode_. MS. Ed. 15.

Alite. v. Lite.

Ale. 113. v. Pref.

Aside. 113. apart. Wiclif.

Aysell. 114, 115. a species of Vinegar. Wiclif. Chaucer, v. _Eisel_.

Alegar. 114.

Armed. 146. v. ad loc.

Alygyn. v. Brewet.


Bacon. No. I.

Benes. I. alibi Beans. Chaucer, v. _bene_.

Bef. 6. MS. Ed. 17. Beef, Buf, Buff. MS. Ed. 27. 42, 43.

Buth. 6. 23. 30. alibi, been, are. Chaucer has _beth_.

Ben. MS. Ed. 4. 27. be. Chaucer v. _bein_ and _ben_.

Balles. 152. Balls or Pellets.

Blank Defire. 193, 194. bis. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. In No. 193, we meet
with _Blank desne_, but the Contents has _Desire_, which is right,
as appears from the sequel. In MS. Ed. 29. it is _Blank-Surry_, and
_Sury_, and _Sure_, and _de Sur_. II. 19. de Syry, 31. and here No.
37, it is Dessorre. and we have _Samon in Sorry_. Lel. Coll. VI. p.
17. Perches, ibid. Eels p. 28. 30. where it is a Potage. whence I
conceive it either means _de Surrey_, i. e. Syria, v. Chaucer. v.
_Surrey_. Or it may mean _to be desired_, as we have _Horsys of
Desyr_. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 272. See No. 63. and it is plainly written
_Desire_ in Godwin de Prasul. p. 697. In this case, the others are
all of them corruptions.

Blank Dessorre. v. Blank Desire.

Blank Desne. v. Blank Desire.

Berandyles. MS. Ed. 27.

Bred, Breed. MS. Ed. passim. Bread.

Bove. 167. Above. Chaucer. Belg. _Boven_.

Blode. 11. alibi. Blod. MS. Ed. 9. Blood.

Batour. 149. of eggs, 161. 179. Batur, 28. Batour. ibid. 19. Batter.

Boter. MS. Ed. 38. Butter.

Borage. 6.

Betes. 6. Beets. Fr. _Bete_.

Bursen. n. name of a dish. Bursews, No. 179, is a different dish.

Brek. MS. Ed. 6. 23. break, bruise.

Brest, breste. MS. Ed. 1. 14. burst.

Bukkennade. 17. a dish. Buknade, 118. where it means a mode of
dressing. vide MS. Ed. 45. 52.

Bryddes. 19. Briddes, 60. 62. Birds, per metathesin. Chaucer.

Brawn of Capons. 20. 84. Flesh. Braun. MS. Ed. 29. v. Chaucer, we now
say, _brawn of the arm_, meaning the flesh. Hence _brawn-fall'n_.
Old Plays, XI. p. 85. Lylie's Euphues, p. 94. 142. Chaucer. Brawn is
now appropriated to these rolls which are made of Brawn or Boar, but
it was not so anciently, since in No. 32 we have _Brawn of Swyne_,
which shews the word was common to other kinds of flesh as well as
that of the Boar; and therefore I cannot agree with Dr. Wallis in
deducing _Brawn _ from _Aprugna_.

Blank maunger. 36. 192. Chaucer writes _Blank manger_. Blomanger. MS.
Ed. 14. 33. 34. II. 7. N. B. a very different thing from what we make
now under that name, and see Holme, III. p. 81.

Bronchis. MS. Ed. 55. Branches.

Braan. MS. Ed. II. 10. Bran.

Bet. MS. Ed. II. 21. Beaten.

Broche. MS. Ed. 58. a Spit.

Brewet of Almony. 47. v. Almony. of Ayrenn, or eggs, 91. MS. Ed. 23.
Eles in Brewet, 110. where it seems to be composed of Bread and Wine.
Muskles in Brewet, 122. Hens in Bruet, MS. Ed. 7. Cold, 131. 134.
Bruet and Brewet are French _Brouet_, Pottage or Broth. Bruet riche,
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. _Beorwete_, p. 227, as I take it. _Blanche
Brewet de Alyngyn_, MS. Ed. 13. 23.

Boon. 55. Bone. Chaucer.

Brennyng. 67. 188. burning, per metathesin, from _bren_ or _brenne_,
used by Skelton, in the Invective against Wolsey, and many old
authors. Hence the disease called brenning or burning. Motte's
Abridgement of Phil. Trans. part IV. p. 245. Reid's Abridgement,
part III. p. 149. Wiclif has _brenne_ and _bryne_. Chaucer, v.
_bren_, _Brinne_, &c.

Blake. 68. Black. Chaucer.

Berst. 70. 181. 192. burst. Chaucer. A. S. berstan.

Breth. 71. Air, Steam. MS. Ed. N  2. hence _brether_, breather.

Bronn. 74. brown. A. S. brun.

Butter. 81. 91. 92. 160. Boter, MS. Ed. 38. and so _boutry_ is
Buttery. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 281. _Almonde Butter_. Lel. VI. p. 6.
Rabelais, IV. c. 60.

Bynethen. 92. under, beneath. Chaucer, bineth.

Bolas. 95. bullace. Chaucer.

Bifore. 102. before. Wiclif. Matth. xiv. Chaucer has _biforne_, and

Brasey. a compound sauce, 107.

Ballac broth. 109.

Brymlent. Tart de Brymlent. 167. v. ad loc.

Bloms. 171. Flowers, Blossoms. Chaucer.

Bothom. 173. bottom, pronounced _bothom_ now in the north. Chaucer,
bottym, MS. Ed. 48.

Brode. 189. broad, v. abrode.

Bataiwyng. 189. embatteling. qu. if not misread for _bataillyng_. See
Chaucer, v. batailed.

Bord. MS. Ed. II. 27. board. Chaucer.

Breyt, breth. MS. Ed. 17. 58. Broth.

Blank Surry. MS. Ed. 29. II. 19. v. Blank Desire.

Bismeus. MS. Ed. 16.


C. omitted, v. Cok. v. pluk. v. Pryk. v. Pekok. v. Phifik. v. thyk. on
the contrary it often abounds, hence, schulle, should; fresch, fresh;
dische, dish; schepys, sheeps; flesch, flesh; fysch, fish; scher,
cheer, &c. in MS. Ed. v. Gl. to Chaucer, v. schal.

Craftly. Proem. properly, _secundum artem_.

Caboches. 4. alibi. Cabbages. f. Fr. Caboche, Head, Pate.

Caraway. 53. v. Junij Etymolog.

Carvon. 152. carved, cut. Corvyn, MS. Ed. II. 19,20. cut. _Corue_, i.
e. corve, 4. cut. v. ycorve. v. kerve.

Canell. passim. Cinamon. Wiclif. v. Pref.

Cuver. MS. Ed. 56. Cover.

Cumpas. by Cumpas, i.e. Compass, 189. by measure, or round. Lel. Coll.
IV. p. 263.

Cool. 6. Cole or Colwort. Belg. _kool_.

Corat. 12. name of a dish.

Culdore. MS. Ed. 25. 27. a Cullender. Span. Coladers.

Caffelys. MS. Ed. 28.

Cranes. 146. _Grues_. v. ad loc.

Chyballes. 12. Chibolls, 76. young Onions. Littleton. Ital _Cibolo_.
Lat. Capula, according to Menage; and see Lye.

Colys. MS. Ed. II. see the Pref.

Cawdel. 15. 33. Caudell, Contents. See Junius. of Muskels or Muscles,
124. Cawdel Ferry, 41. In E. of Devon's feast it is _Feny_.

Conynges. 17. Connynges, 2,3. Coneys, Rabbets.

Calle. 152. Cawl of a Swine.

Connat. 18. a marmolade. v. ad loc.

Clowes. 20. Cloves. v. Pref.

Canuas, or Canvass. 178. Fr, Canevas. Belg. Kanefas.

Coraunte. Raysouns of Coraunte. 14. So _Rasyns of Corens_, Northumb.
Book, p. 19. _Raisin de Corinthie_. Fr. i.e. of Corinth, whence our
Currants, which are small Raisins, came, and took their name.
_Corance_, 17. 21. _Coraunce_. 50. _Coronse_, MS. Ed. 12. Raisins are
called by way of contradistinction _grete_ Raysouns, 65. 133. See
Northumb. Book, p. 11.

Coronse. v. Coraunte.

Chargeant. 192. Stiff. v. ad loc. MS. Ed. writes _Charchant_, 29, 30
_Charghaunt_, 33. _Charchaunt_,

34. _Chariaunt_. i.e. _Charjaunt_, 36. II. 24. _Chariand_. i.e.
_Charjand_, 27.

Comyn. MS. Ed. 39.

Colure. MS. Ed. 5. to colour.

Coneys. 22. seems to be a kind of sauce. MS. Ed. 6. but the recipe
there is different, v. ad No. 25.

Chanke. MS. Ed. 20.

Col, Cole. 23. 52. cool, also to strain, 70, 71. alibi. MS. Ed. II.
22. cleared.

Comyn. MS. Ed. II. 18. come.

Cowche. 24. 154. lay. MS. Ed. II. 25. Chaucer, v. Couche.

Cynee. 25. a certain sauce. perhaps the same with Coney. No. 22.
Plays in Cynee, 112. Sooles, 119. Tenches, 120. Oysters, 123. Harys
[Hares] in Cmee. MS. Ed. 8. where doubtless we should read Cinee,
since in No. 51 there it is _Cyney_. It is much the same as _bruet_,
for _Sooles in Cynee_ here is much the same with _Solys in bruet_. MS.
Ed. II. 13.

Chykens. 27. 33. Chicken is a plural itself. but in MS. Ed. 13. it is
_Chekenys_ also; and _Chyckyns_. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 1. _Checonys_ MS.

Carnel of Pork. 32. v. ad loc.

Corvyn. v. Carvon.

Curlews. 35. not eaten now at good tables; however they occur in
archb. Nevill's feast. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 1. And see Northumb. Book, p.
106. Rabelais iv. c. 59. And Earl of Devon's Feast.

Confit, or Confyt. v. Aneys and Colyandre.

Charlet. 39. a dish. v. ad loc.

Chese ruayn. 49. 166. perhaps of Rouen in Normandy, _rouen_ in Fr.
signifies the colour we call _roan_.

Crems. 52. for singular Cream, written _Creme_, 85. 183. Crem and

Crym, in MS. Ed. 34. II. 24. Fr. _Cresme, Creme_.

Cormarye. 53. a dish. qu.

Colyandre. 53. 128. where it is _in Confyt rede_, or red. White is
also used for garnish, 59. [Anglo-Saxon: Celenere], A. S. Ciliandro, Span.

Chyryse. 58. a made dish of cherries, v. ad loc.

Cheweryes. 58. Cherries. v. ad loc. and MS. Ed. II. 18. ubi _Chiryes_.

Crotoun, 60. a dish. v. ad loc.

Crayton. v. Crotoun.

Cleeve a two. 62. cloven. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: cleopan].

Cyrip. 64. Sirrup. v. ad loc.

Chyches. 72. Vetches, v. ad loc.

Chawf. 74 warm. Fr. _Echauffer_, whence Chaucer has _Eschaufe_.

Clat. 78. a dish. qu.

Chef. Proem, chief. Fr.

Calwar Salmoun. 98. v. ad loc.

Compost. 100. a preparation supposed to be always at hand. v. ad loc.

Comfery. 190. Comfrey. v. ad loc.

Chargeours. 101. dishes. v. ad 126.

Chysanne. 103. to be eaten cold.

Congur. 104. 115. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6. bis. p. 16. _Cungeri_ are
among the fish in Mr. Topham's MS. for the Conger, little used now,
see Pennant. III. p. 115.

Coffyns. 113. Pies raised without their lids, 158. 167. 185. 196. MS.
Ed. II. 23. 27. In Wiclif it denotes baskets.

Comade. 113. Comadore. 188.

Couertour. 113. Coverture, Lid of a Pye.

Codlyng. 94. grete Codelyng, 114. v. ad loc.

Chawdoun. 115. for Swans, 143. _Swan with Chawdron_. Lel. Coll. IV. p.
226. which I suppose may be true orthography. So _Swann with
Chaudron_. Earl of Devon's Feast. And it appears from a MS. of Mr.
Astle's, where we have among _Sawces Swanne is good with Chaldron_,
that _Chaldron_ is a sauce.

Crome. 131. Pulp, Kernel. Crummes. 159. Chaucer. The Crum is now the
soft part of a loaf, opposed to the crust.

Cury. Proem. Cookery. We have assumed it in the title.

Camelyne. 144. a sauce. an _Canelyne_, from the flour of Canel?

Crudds. 150. 171. Curds, per metathesin, as common in the north.

Crustards. 154. Pies, from the _Crust_. quare if our _Custard_ be not
a corruption of Crustard; Junius gives a different etymon, but
whether a better, the Reader must judge. Crustard of fish, 156. of
herbs, 157. and in the Earl of Devon's Feast we have _un Paste

Cryspes. 162. Cryspels. 163. v. ad loc. _Fritter Crispayne_, Lel.
Coll. VI. p. 5. which in Godwin de Prasal p. 697. is _Fruter

Chawfour. 162. Cowfer, 173. a Chafing dish. Chafer. Lel. Coll. IV.
p. 302. v. Junius voce _Chafe_.

Corose. 171. curiously. perhaps from _cure_, to cook, Chaucer has
_corouse_, curious.

Clarry. 172. Clary.

Cotagres. 175. a dish. v. ad loc.

Cok. 175. a Cock. sic. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.

Chewets. 185. 186. a dish. Rand. Holme, III. p. 78. 81, 82. Birch,
Life of Prince Henry, p. 458.

Comadore. v. Comade.

Chastlet. 189. v. ad loc.

Christen. Proem. Christian.


Do. 1, 2. put, cause. MS. Ed. 2. 12. Chaucer. _make_. 56. done, 48.
So Chaucer has _do_ for _done_.

Dof. do off. 101.

Draw. drawen 2. strained, hence 3. 20. 23. _drawe the grewel thurgh
straynour_. To boil. 2.17. as, _drawe hem up with gode brothe_. also
51. 74. To put, 14. 41. To make. 28. 47. as, _draw an Almand mylke_.

Dee. 152. singular of Dice, the Fr. De. v. quare.

Drepee. 19 a dish. qu.

Dates. 20. 52. 158. the fruit.

Dyssh. 24. dish.

Dessorre. 37. v. Blank desire.

Doust. 45. alibi Dust.

Dowhz. 50. Dowh. 92. Dow. MS. Ed. II. 29, Dough, Paste. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: dah].

Douce Ame. 63. quast a delicious dish. v. Blank Desire.

Drope. 67. drop, to baste. MS. Ed. 28.

Dorry. Sowpes dorry, 82. Sops endorsed. from _endore_, 187. MS. Ed.
42, II. 6. vide ad 174.

Deel. 113. 170. part, some. v. Sum. Chaucer.

Dicayn. 172. v. ad loc.

Dokks. as _Sowre Dokks_, 173. Docks.

Dorryle. v. Pomme.

Daryols. 183. a dish. A Custard baked in a Crust. Hear Junius, v.
Dairie. 'G. _dariole_ dicitur libi genus, quod iisdem Gallis alias
nuncupatur _laicteron_ vel _stan de laict_.'

Desne. v. Blank Desire.

Desire. v. Blank.

Dressit. 194. dressed. dresse. MS. Ed. 15. et passim. Chaucer in voce.
hence ydressy. MS. Ed. II. 18.

Dysis. MS. Ed. 15. dice. v. quare.

Demembre, dimembre. MS. Ed. 31. dismember.

Dows, douze. MS. Ed. 50. II. 21.

Drong. MS. Ed. 54. drunk.


E. with _e_ final after the consonant, for _ea_, as brede, bread;
benes, beans; bete, beat; breke, break; creme, cream; clere, clear;
clene, clean; mede, mead; mete, meat; stede, stead; whete, wheat; &c.

E with _e_ final after the consonant, for _ee_, as betes, beets;

chese, cheese; depe, deep; fete, feet; grene, green; nede, needful;
swete, sweet.

Endorre. MS. Ed. 42. endorse.

Ete. 103. eat. _eten_, 146. eaten. _etyn_. MS. Ed. 3. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: etan]. MS. Ed. 48. oat.

Enforse. MS. Ed. II. 20. seasoned.

Erbes. 7. herbs; _herb's_, 63. _erbys_, 151. Eerbis, 157.

Eyren, and Ayren. 7, 8. 15. Eyryn, S. Ed. 1. Eggs. 'a merchant at the
N. Foreland in Kent asked for eggs, and the good wyf answerede, that
she coude speak no Frenshe--another sayd, that he wolde have _eyren_,
then the good wyf sayd that she understood hym wel.' Caxton's Virgil,

in Lewis' Life of Caxton, p. 61. who notes 'See Sewel's 'Dictionary,
v. _Ey_.' add, Urry's Chaucer, v. Aye and Eye. Note here the old
plural _en_, that _eggs_ is sometimes used in our Roll, and that in
Wicht _eye_, or _ey_ is the singular, and in the _Germ_. See Chaucer.
v. _Aie_, and _Ay_.

Eowts. 6. v. ad loc.

Egurdouce. 21. v. ad loc. of Fysshe, 133. Egge dows, MS. Ed. 50. male.
Egerduse. ibid. II. 1. Our No. 58, is really an Eagerdouce, but
different from this here. A Seville Orange is Aigre-douce. Cotgrave.

Esy. 67. easy. eselich, 113. easily. Chaucer.

Eny. 74. 173. any.

Elena Campana. 78. i.e. Enula Campana, _Elecampane_.

Erbowle. 95. a dish. v. ad loc.

Erbolat. 172. a dish. v. ad loc.

Eerys, Eris. 177. 182. 55. Ears. _Eyr_. MS. Ed. 44. Chaucer has _Ere_
and _Eris_.

Elren. 171. Elder. _Eller_, in the north, without _d_.

Erne. 174. qu.

Euarund. MS. Ed. 3.

Eelys. 101. Eels. _Elys_, _Helys_. MS. Ed. II. 15. 24. _Elis_.


Forced. 3. farced, stuft. we now say, _forc'd-meat_, yfarced, 159,
160. _enforsed_. MS. Ed. II. 20. _fors_, 170. called _fars_, 150. it
seems to mean _season_, No. 4. Mixt. 4 where potage is said to be
_forced_ with powdour-douce.

Fort. passim. strong. Chaucer.

Fresee. MS. Ed. 47.

Fenkel. 6. 77. _Fenel_, 76. 172. _Fenell_, 100. Fennel. Germ. Venikol.
Belg. Venckel.

Forme. Proem. 95. forme.

Funges. 10. Mushrooms, from the French. Cotgrave. Holme III. p. 82.
The Romans were fond of them.

Fesants. 20. 35.

Fynelich wel. 192. very wel, constantly.

Fro. 22. MS. Ed. 50. Chaucer. from. So therfro. 53. Lel. Coll. IV. p.
266. Chaucer.

Fleysch. 24. Fleissh, 37. Flesh, A. S. lae. Germ. _Fleisc_.

Feneboyles. MS. Ed. II. 22.

Fyletts. 28. Fillets.

Florish and Flour. 36. 38. 40. Garnish. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. 23.
Chaucer, v. Floure.

Foyles. 49. rolled Paste. _Foyle of dowhz_, 50. 92. et per se, 148.
53. _Foile of Paste_, 163. Leaves of Sage, 161. Chaucer. v. ad 175.
hence Carpe in Foile. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. _a Dolphin in Foyle_, _a
suttletie_. VI. p. 5. _Lyng in Foyle_, p. 16. _Cunger_. Ibid. _Samon_.
Ibid. _Sturgen_. p. 17. et v. p. 22. N.B. Foyle in these cases means

Fars. v. forced.

Fle. 53. flea, flaw. MS. Ed. II. 33. flawe, flein, flain, flawed. 10.
13. 15.

Fonnell. 62. a dish.

Frot. MS. Ed. II. 17. rub, shake, _frote_, Chaucer.

Feyre. 66. MS. Ed. II. 18. 22. _Feir_. Chaucer. Fair.

Ferthe. 68. Fourth, hence Ferthing or Farthing.

Furmente. 69. 116. _Furmenty_, MS. Ed. I. _Formete_. Ibid. 48.
_Formenty_, Ib. II. 30. from Lat. _Frumentum_, per metathesin;
whence called more plausibly _Frumity_ in the north, and Frumetye in
Lel. Collect. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 5. 17. 22. but see Junius, v.


Frenche. 73. a dish. v. ad loc.

Fest. MS. II. 18. Feast. Chaucer.

Fygey. 89. because made of Figs. Fygs drawen. 103. MS. Ed. II. 3.

Found. 93. mix. dissolve, 193. fond. 188. v. y fonded. Lye, in Junii
Etym. v. Founder.

Fete. 102. Chaucer. Fet, MS. Ed. 44. Feet.

Flaumpeyns. 113. 184.

Ferst. MS. Ed. II. 30. First.

Fanne. 116. to fan or winnow. A. S. pann, Vannus.

Frytour. 149, 150, 151. Fruturs. MS. Ed. 19. 40. Fritters. _Fruter_,
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. Frytor. VI. p. 17.

Flaunne. 163. Flownys. MS. Ed. II. 27. Fr. Flans, Custards. Chaucer.
v. Slaunnis. Et v. Junium voce _Flawn_.

Feel. 168. hold, contain, perhaps same as _feal_, occultare,
abscondere, for which see Junii Etymol.

Fuyre. 188. Fire. _Fyr fort_. 192. a strong Fire. _Fere_, Chaucer.
_Fyer_, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 296. Belg. _Vuyn_, _Fere_. MS. Ed. 58.

Ferry. v. Cawdel.

Flowr, Flowre. MS. Ed. 2. 19. Flour.

Fronchemoyle. MS. Ed. 15.

Froys. MS. Ed. 18. Fraise.

Farsure. MS. Ed. 28. stuffing.

Forsy. MS. Ed. 38. season.


Gronden. 1. 53. ground or beaten. _to grynde_ is to cut or beat small.
3. 8. 13. for compare 14. yground 37. 53. 105. to pound or beat in a
mortar. 3. MS. Ed. 5.

Gode. No. 1. alibi, good, strong. Chaucer. _god_, MS. Ed. passim.

Grete. mynced. 2. not too small. _gretust_, 189. greatest. _gret_,
MS. Ed. 15. and Chaucer.

Gourdes. 8. Fr. gouhourde.

Gobettes. 16. 62. Gobbettys, Gobettis. MS. Ed. 9. alibi. Chaucer.
_Gobbins_, Holme III. p. 81, 82. large pieces. Wiclif. Junii Etym.

Grees. 17. 101. Grece, 18. alibi. MS. Ed. 8. 14. 32. alibi, whyte
Grece, 18. Fat, Lard, Conys of high Grece. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. qu.

Gravey. 26, 27. _Grave_. MS. Ed. II. 20. _Gravy_. Lel. Coll. VI. p.

Galyntyne. 28. 117. a preparation seemingly made of

Galingale, &c. 129. and thence to take its name. See a recipe for
making it, 138. as also in MS. Ed. 9. Bread of Galyntyne, 94. Soupes
of Galyntyne, 129. Lampervey in Galantine. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI.
p. 22. Swanne, VI. p. 5.

Garlete and Garlec. 30. 34. Garlick. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: garleac].

Grapes. 30. 34.

Galyngale. 30. the Powder, 47. the long-rooted Cyperus. Gl. to
Chaucer. See Northumberland Book, P. 415.

Gleyre. of Ayrenn. 59. the white, from Fr. glaire. Chaucer. _Lear_ or
_Leir_ of an Egg. Holme interprets it _the White beaten into a foam_.

Goon. 59. MS. Ed. 1. go. Belg. _gaen_.

Gylofre. 65. Gelofre. MS. Ed. 27. cloves; for see No. 30, 31. 40.
there; from Gr. [Greek: charuophullon].

Gyngawdry. 94. a dish.

Grave. MS. Ed. II. 20. Gravey.

Gele. 101, 102. Jelly. Fr. Gelee.

Gawdy Grene. 112. perhaps, Light Green.

Gurnards. 115.

Greynes de Parys. 137. and so Chaucer, meaning _Greynes de paradys_,
or greater Cardamoms. See Dr. Percy on Northumb. Book, p. 414.
Chaucer has _Greines_ for _Grains_. and Belg. Greyn.

Grate. 152. v. i or y grated.

Gastbon. 194. f. _Gastbon_, quasi _Wastbon_, from _Wastel_ the finest
Bread, which see. Hence the Fr. Gasteau.

Gyngynyr, Gyngenyr, Gyngyner, Gyngener. MS. Ed. 3, 4. 13. 24. Ginger.
Gyngyner-bred, 32.

Grotys. MS. Ed. II. Oat-meal Grotes, i.e. Grits.

Grydern, Grydern, Gredern. MS. Ed. 25. 44. II. 11.


H. for _th_, as hem, them; her, their; passim. _Hare_, 121. Chaucer.
Wiclif. It is sometimes omitted; as _wyt_ and _wyte_, white.
Sometimes abounds, as schaldyd. MS. Ed. 7. II. scalded. v. _Thowehe_.

Hye. Proem. high. _hy_, MS. Ed. 44. A. S. Heah.

Hem. 1, 2. i.e. hem; them. Lye in Junii Etym.

Hulle. 1. a verb, to take off the husk or skin. Littleton. Hence
Hulkes, Husks or _Hulls_, as 71. _Holys_, MS. Ed. 1. Sax. helan, to
cover. v. Lye in Junii Etym. v. Hull.

Hulkes. v. Hulle.

Hewe. 7. cut, mince. _yhewe_, 12. minced, hewn. MS. Ed. 6. 9. _hewin_,
Chaucer. A. S. heyan.

Hakke. 194. MS. Ed. 23. hack, bruise. Junii Etym. v. hack. MS. Ed.
has also _hak_ and _hac_.

Hebolace. 7. name of a dish.

Herdeles. MS. Ed. 56. Hurdles.

Hennes. 17. 45. including, I presume, the whole species, as _Malard_
and _Pekok_ do below.

Hool. 20. 22. alibi. _hole_, 33. 175. _hoole_, 158. whole. Chaucer
has hole, hool, and hoolich; and Wiclif, _hole_ and _hool_. MS. Ed.
has _hol_ and _hole_.

Hooles. 162. Holes.

Holsomly. Proem, wholesomely.

Herthe. MS. Ed. 57. Earth.

Hit. 20. 98. 152. it. hytt. Northumb. Book, p. 440. _Hit_, Gloss.
Wiclif. in Marg. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: hit].

Hoot. 21. alibi. hot.

Hares. 23.

Hoggepot. 31. v. ad loc.

Hochee. 34. hache, Fr. but there is nothing to intimate cutting them
to pieces.

Hersyve. MS. Ed. II. 2. Hair-sieve. _her_ is _hair_ in Chaucer.

Helde. 50. 154. throw, cast, put. v. 189. _Heelde_, poured, shed.
Wiclif. and Lye in Junii Etym. v. Held.

Holde. 189. make, keep. MS. Ed. II. 32, 33.

Hawtheen. 57. Hawthorn. Junius, v. Haw.

Hatte. 59. bubling, wallop. quasi _the hot_, as in Chaucer. from
A.Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: hatt].

Hong. 67. hing, or hang. Chaucer. MS. Ed. 48.

Honde. 76. hand. Chaucer. So in Derbyshire now.

Heps. 84. Fruit of the Canker-rose. So now in Derbyshire, and v.
Junius, voce _Hippes_.

Hake. 94. 186. a Fish. v. ad loc.

Hilde. 109. to skin, from to hull, to scale a fish, 119. vide 117.
119. compared with MS. Ed. II. 13.

Herons. 146. MS. Ed. 3. Holme, III. p. 77, 78. but little used now.
Heronsew. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. _Heronshawe_. VI. p. I. Heronsews.
Chaucer. The Poulterer was to have in his shop _Ardeas sive airones_,
according to Mr. Topham's MS. written about 1250. And _Heronns_
appear at E. of Devon's Feast.

Holke. 173. qu. hollow.

Hertrowee. 176. a dish. _Hert_ is _the Hart_ in Chaucer, A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: heort].

Hi. MS. Ed. 27. they.

Hevyd. MS. Ed. 21. v. ad loc.

Hom. MS. Ed. 56. Home.


I. 2. for e. Proem. So _ith_ for _eth_. Ibid.

in. 30. et sapius. in. _inne_, 37. alibi.

Jushell. 43. a dish. v. ad loc.

Is. plur. for es. 52. 73. Proem. Nomblys. MS. Ed. 12. Nombles. v.
Pees. Rosys, 177, Roses.

I. for y. v. y.

Iowtes. v. Eowtes.

Irne. 107. _Iren_, Chaucer. and the Saxon. Iron.

Juys. 118. 131. _Jus_, MS. Ed. II. 17. the Fr. word, _Ieuse_,


Kerve. 8. cut. _kerf_, 65. MS Ed. 29. v. carvon, and Chaucer, voc.
Carfe, karft, kerve, kerft.

Kydde. 21. Flesh of a Kid. Kedys. MS. Ed. 13. Kids.

Keel. 29. 167. 188. MS. Ed. 1. Gl. to Chaucer and Wiclif, to cool.

Kyt. 118. alibi. MS. Ed. 19. _ket_, Ibid. II. 15. to cut. _kyted_,
cut. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 298. Chaucer, v. _Kitt_.

Keintlick. v. queintlick.

Kyrnels. 189. a species of battlements, from _kernellare_; for which
see Spelman, Du Fresne, and Chaucer.

Kever. MS. Ed. 2. cover.

Kaste, kest. MS. Ed. 6. 10. cast. v. ad loc.

Kow. MS. Ed. 38. Cow.


L. for ll. MS. Ed. sape.

Lat. 9. 14. alibi. MS. Ed. 1, 2. Let. Chaucer. Belg. _laten. latyn_.
MS. Ed, II. 5. _let_.

Lire, and Lyre. 3. 14. 45. MS. Ed. sape. the fleshy part of Meat. A.S.
[Anglo-Sxon: lire]. See Lyre in Junii Etymol. Also a mixture, as _Dough of
Bread and raw Eggs_, 15. hence 'drawe a Lyre of Brede, Blode, Vyneg,
and Broth,' 25. So Lyour and Layour. II. 31. all from _lye_, which
see. Lay seems to mean _mix_, 31. as _layour_ is mixture, 94.

Lye it up. 15. to mix; as _alye_, which see.

Leke. in sing. 10. 76. Leeks.

Langdebef. 6. an herb. v. ad loc. _Longdobeefe_ Northumberland Book.
p. 384. Bugloss.

Lytel. 19. passim. _Litul_ and _litull_, 104. 152. 'a litel of
Vynegar,' 118. of Lard, 152.

Loseyns, Losyns. 24. 92. on fish-day, 128. a Lozenge is interpreted
by Cotgrave, 'a little square Cake of preserved herbs, flowers, &c.'
but that seems to have no concern here. _Lozengs_. Lel. Coll. IV. p.

Lyche. 152. like. _lichi_. Wiclif. _lich_. Chaucer. _ylich_. Idem.

Lombe. 62. Lamb. hence Wiclif, _Lomberen_, Lambs. Chaucer, and Germ.

Leche Lumbard. 65. from the country doubtless, as the mustard, No.
100. See also Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6. 26. _Leches_. MS. Ed. 15. are
Cakes, or pieces. Rand. Holme makes _Leach_, p. 83. to be 'a kind of
Jelly made of Cream, Ising-glass, Sugar, and Almonds, &c.' The
_Lessches_ are fried, 158. v. yleeshyd. _Leyse Damask_. Lel. Coll. IV.
p. 226. _Leche baked_. VI. p. 5. _Partriche Leiche_. Ibid. _Leche
Damaske_. Ibid. See also, p. 10. _Leche Florentine_, p. 17. _Leche
Comfort_. Ibid. _Leche Gramor_. Ibid. Leche Cypres, p. 26. which in
Godwin de Prasul. p. 697. is _Sipers_, male.

Lete Lardes. 68. v. ad loc.

Lave. 76. wash.

Leyne. 82. a Layer.

Lewe water. 98. Lews water, MS. Ed. II. 10. warm; see Gloss. to
Wiclif. and Junius. v. Lukewarm.

Lumbard Mustard. 100. from the country. v. Leche. how made, No. 145.

Lef. MS. Ed. 56. leave. _Lefe_, Chaucer.

Lite. 104. a few, _alite_, as they speak in the North. Chaucer, v.
Lite, and Lyte, and Mr. Lye in his Junius.

Laumpreys. 126. Lampreys, an Eel-like Sea Fish. Pennant, Brit. Zool.
III. p. 68.

Laumprons. 127. the _Pride_. Pennant, Ibid. p. 61. See Lel. Coll. VI.
p. 6. 17. bis 23. Mr. Topham's MS. has _Murenulas sive Lampridulas_.

Looches, Loches. 130. 133. the fish.

Lardes of Swyne. 146. i.e. of Bacon. hence _lardid_, 147. and
_Lardons_. MS. Ed. 3. 43. from the Fr. which Cotgrave explains
_Slices of Lard_, i.e. Bacon. vide ad 68.

Lorere tre. MS. Ed. 55. Laurel tree. Chaucer.

Lyuours. 152. Livers. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: lyper].

Led. MS. Ed. 56. carry. _lide_, Chaucer.

Lenton. 158. Lent.

Lynger. 159. longer. Chaucer has _longer_ and _lengir_. v. Lange.

Lopuster, Lopister. MS. Ed. II. 7. 16. v. Junii Etymolog.

Lust. as, hym lust. Proem, he likes. Chaucer, v. Lest.

Lewys. MS. Ed. 41. Leaves. Lefe, Chaucer. v. Lef.

Lie. Liquor. Chaucer. MS. Ed. 48.

Ley. MS. Ed. 6. lay.

Lese, les. MS. Ed, 14. II. 7, 8. pick. To _lease_, in Kent, is to


Make. 7. MS. Ed. 12. 43. II. 12. to dress. _make forth_, 102. to do.
MS. Ed. II. 35.

Monchelet. 16. a dish.

Mylk, Melk. MS. II. 30. Milk of Almonds, 1. 10. 13. alibi.

Moton. 16. MS. Ed. 1. Mutton, See Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. Flemish.

Mawmenee. 20. 193. a dish. v. ad loc. how made, 194. _Mamane_. Lel.
Coll. IV. p. 227. Mamonie. VI. p. 17. 22. royal, 29. Manmene, MS. Ed.
29, 30. _Mamenge_. E. of Devon's Feast.

Morterelys. v. Mortrews.

Medle. 20. 50. alibi. to mix. Wiclif. Chaucer.

Messe. to messe the dysshes, 22. messe forth, 24.

Morre. 38. MS. Ed. 37. II. 26. a dish. v. ad loc.

Mortrews. 45. _Mortrews blank_, 46. of fish, 125. _Morterelys_, MS.
Ed. 5. where the recipe is much the same. 'meat made of boiled hens,
crummed bread, yolk of eggs, and safron, all boiled together,' Speght
ad Chaucer. So called, says Skinner, who Writes it _mortress_,
because the ingredients are all pounded together in a mortar.

Moscels. 47. Morsels. Chaucer has _Morcills_. Moscels is not amiss,
as _Mossil_ in Chaucer is the muzle or mouth.

Mete. 67. A.S. and Chaucer. Meat. _Meetis_, Proem. Meats. It means
also _properly_, MS. Ed. II. 21. Chaucer.

Myng. 68. MS. Ed. 30. _ming_, 76. meng, 127. 158. MS. Ed. 32. Chaucer.
to mix. So _mung_, 192. is to stir. Wiclif. v. Mengyng. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: mengan].

Morow. at Morow. 72. in the Morning. MS. Ed. 33. a Morrow, Chaucer.
on the Morow. Lei. Coll. IV. p. 234.

Makke. 74. a dish.

Meel, Mele. 86. 97. Meal. _Melis_, Meals. Chaucer. Belg. _Meel_.

Macrows. 62. Maccharone. vide ad locum.

Makerel. 106.

Muskles, Muskels. 122. Muscles. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: murcule].

Malard, Maulard. 141. meaning, I presume, both sexes, as ducks are
not otherwise noticed. Holme, III. p. 77. and Mr. Topham's MS.

Mylates, whyte. 153. a dish of pork, 155.

Myddell. 170. midle. _myddes_. 175. the same.

Mawe. 176. Stomach of a Swine. Chaucer. Junii Etym.

Moold. 177. Mould.

Maziozame. 191. Marjoram. See the various orthographies in Junius, v.

Male Marrow. 195. qu.

Moyle. v. Ris. v. Fronchemoyle.

Mulberries. 99. 132. v. Morree.

Myce, myse. MS. Ed. 8. 15. mince, myed. II. 19. minced, ymyed, 35.
for ymyced. myney, II. 3. myneyd, II. 1.

Mo. MS. Ed. 38. more. Chaucer.

Maner. _of_ omitted. MS. Ed. 45. 47, 48. II. 2. 28.

Mad, ymad. MS. Ed. II. 9. made.

Mychil. MS. Ed. 48, much. Chaucer, v. moche. Junius v. mickel.

Myntys. MS. Ed. II. 15. Mint. _Myntys_, Brit.


A Nost, I. crasis of _an Oste_, or Kiln; frequent in Kent, where
_Hop-oste_ is the kiln for drying hops. 'Oost or East: the same that
kiln or kill, Somersetshire, and elsewhere in the west,' Ray. So
_Brykhost_ is a Brick-kiln in Old Parish-Book of _Wye_ in Kent, 34 H.
VIII. 'We call _est_ or _oft_ the place in the house, where the smoke
ariseth; and in some manors _austrum_ or _ostrum_ is that, where a
fixed chimney or flew anciently hath been,' Ley, in Hearne's Cur.
Disc. p. 27. _Mannors_ here means, I suppose manor-houses, as is
common in the north. Hence _Haister_, for which see Northumb. Book, p.
415. 417. and Chaucer, v. Estris.

Noumbles. 11. 13. Entrails of any beast, but confined now to those
of a deer. I suspect a crasis in the case, quasi _an Umble_, singular
for what is plural now, from Lat. _Umbilicus_. We at this day both
say and write _Umbles_. _Nombles_, MS. Ed. 12. where it is _Nomblys
of the venyson_, as if there were other Nomblys beside. The Fr. write

Non. 68. no. Chaucer. A.S. nan.

Nyme. 114. take, _recipe_. Sax. niman. Chaucer. used in MS. Ed.
throughout. See Junius. v. Nim.

Notys. 144. Wallenotes, 157. So _Not_, MS. Ed. II. 30. Chaucer. Belg.

Nysebek. 173. a dish. quasi, nice for the _Bec_, or Mouth.

Nazt, nozt. MS. Ed. 37. not.


Oynons. 2. 4. 7. Fr. Oignons. Onions.

Orage. 6. Orache.

Other, oother. 13, 14. 54. 63. MS Ed. sape. Chaucer. Wiclif. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: oer]. or.

On, oon. 14. 20. alibi. in. as in the Saxon. _One_ MS.
Ed 58. II. 21. Chaucer.

Obleys. 24. a kind of Wafer, v. ad loc.

Onys. MS. Ed. 37. once, _ones_, Chaucer, v. _Atones_, and _ones_.

Onoward, onaward. 24. 29. 107. onward, upon it.

Of. omitted, as powder Gynger, powder Gylofre, powder Galyngale.
abounds, v. Lytel.

Oot. 26. alibi. Oat. Otyn. MS. Ed. II. Oaten.

Opyn. MS. Ed. 28. open.

Offall. 143. _Exta_, Giblets.

Oystryn. MS. Ed. II. 14. Oysters.

Of. Proem. by.

Ochepot. v. Hochepot.

Ovene. i. Oven. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: oren]. Belg. Oven. _0vyn_, MS. Ed. II. 16.

Olyve, de Olyve, Olyf, Dolyf, MS. Ed. Olive.

Owyn. MS. Ed. 22. own.


Plurals increase a syllable, Almandys, Yolkys, Cranys, Pecokys, &c.
So now in Kent in words ending in _st_. This is Saxon, and so Chaucer.

Plurals in _n_, Pisyn, Hennyn, Appelyn, Oystrin.

Powdon douce. 4. Pref.

Powdon fort. 10, ii. v. Pref.

Pasturnakes. 5. seems to mean _Parsnips_ or Carrots, from _Pastinaca_.
_Pasternak of Rasens_, 100. of Apples, 149. means Pastes, or Paties.

Persel. 6. 29. alibi. _Persele_ MS. Ed. II. 15. Fr. _Persil_. Parsley.
Parcyle. MS. Ed. 32.

Pyke, pike. 18. 76. pick. Chaucer, v. Pik.

Pluk. 76. pluck, pull. A. S. pluccian.

Pellydore. 19. v. ad loc.

Peletour. 104. v. ad 19.

Paast. MS. Ed. II. 29. Paste.

Potell. 20. Pottle.

Pyncs. 20. alibi, v. Pref.

Pecys. 21. alibi. _Pece_, 190. _Pecis_, MS. Ed. 12. Chaucer. Pieces,
Piece, i.

Peper. 21. 132. MS. Ed. i6. has _Pepyr_. Pip. 140. 143. MS. Ed. 9.
_Pepper_. A. S. peopor and pipor.

Papdele. 24. a kind of sauce. probably from _Papp_, a kind of

Pise, Pisyn, MS. Ed. 2. Pease.

Peers. 130. 138. _Pers_, 167. Perys, MS. Ed. II. 23. Pears. Pery, a
Pear tree, Chaucer.

Possynet. 30. 160. a Posnet.

Partruches. 35. 147. _Partyches_, Contents. Partridges. _Perteryche_,
E. of Devon's Feast.

Panne. 39. 50. a Pan. A.S. Panna.

Payndemayn. 60. 139. where it is _pared_. Flour. 41. 162. 49, white
Bread. Chaucer.

Par. MS. Ed. 19. pare.

Peions. 18. 154. Pigeons. If you take _i_ for _j_, it answers to
modern pronunciation, and in E. of Devon's Feast it is written
Pejonns, and Pyjonns.

Pynnonade. 51. from the Pynes of which it is made. v. Pynes. _Pynade_
or _Pivade_. MS. Ed. II. 32.

Pryk. 53. prick. Pettels. 56. Legs. We now say _the Pestels of a
lark_. of veneson, Lel. Collect. IV. p. 5. Qu. a corruption of

Payn foindew. 59. _fondew_, Contents, v. ad loc.

Peskodde. 65. Hull or Pod of Pease, used still in the North. v.
Coddis in Wiclif, and Coddes in Junii Etymolog.

Payn Ragoun. 67. a dish. qu.

Payn puff, or puf. 196. _Payne puffe_. E. of Devon's Feast.

Pownas. 68. a colour. qu. v. Preface.

Porpays, Porpeys. 69. 108. salted, 116. roasted, 78. _Porpus_ or
Porpoise. _Porpecia_, Spelm. Gl. v. Geaspecia, which he corrects
_Seaspecia_. It is surprising he did not see it must be _Graspecia_
or _Craspiscis_, i.e. _Gros_ or _Crassus Piscis_, any large fish; a
common term in charters, which allow to religious houses or others
the produce of the sea on their coasts. See Du Cange in vocibus. We
do not use the Porpoife now, but both these and Seals occur in Archb.
Nevill's Feast. See Rabelais, IV. c. 60. and I conceive that the
_Balana_ in Mr. Topham's MS. means the Porpus.

Perrey. 70. v. ad loc.

Pesoun. 70, 71. _ Pise, Pisyn.,_ MS. Ed. 2. Pease. Brit. _Pysen._

Partye. 71. _a partye,_ i.e. some. MS. Ed. 2. Chaucer.

Porrectes. 76. an herb. v. ad loc.

Purslarye. 76. Purslain.

Pochee. 90. a dish of poached Eggs, v. Junius, voce _Poach._

Powche. 94. Crop or Stomach of a fish. _Paunches,_ 114, 115.

Pyke. ici. the fish. v. ad loc.

Plays. 101. 105. 112. Plaise; the fish. _Places,_ Lel. Coll. VI. p.6.

Pelettes. 11. Balls. Pellets. Pelotys. MS. Ed. 16.

Paunch. v. Powche.

Penne. 116. a Feather, or Pin. MS. Ed. 28. Wiclif. v. Pennes.

Pekok. 147. Peacock. _Pekokys,_ MS. Ed. 4. where same direction
occurs. Pekok. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.

presse. 150. to press. Chaucer.

Pyner. 155. qu. v. Pref.

Prunes. 164. Junius in v. _Prunes and Damysyns._. 167. _Prunes
Damysyns_. 156. 158. _Primes,_ 169. should be corrected _Prunes._
Prunys, MS. Ed. II. 17. _Prognes._ Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. _ Prune
Orendge,_ an Orange Plumb, p. 23. _Prones,_ Northumb. Book, p.19.
plant it with Prunes, 167. stick it, Lel. Coll. VI. p.5. 16 22. As
the trade with Damascus is mentioned in the Preface, we need not
wonder at finding the Plumbs here.

Primes, v. Prunes.

Prews of gode past. 176. qu.

Potews. 177. a dish named from the pots used.

Pety peruant. 195. _Petypanel, a marchpayne._ Lel. Coll. VI. p.6.

Parade. hole parade. 195. qu.

Plater. MS. Ed. II. 9. Platter.

Puff. v. Payn.

Phitik. Proem. Physick.

Poumegarnet. 84. Poungarnetts, MS. Ed. 39. Powmis gernatys. Ibid. 27.
Pomgranates, per metathesin.

Penche. MS. Ed. 36.

Partyns. MS. Ed. 38. Parts.

Pommedorry. MS. Ed. 42. Poundorroge, 58. _Pomes endoryd_. E. of
Devon's Feast.

Pommys morles. MS. Ed. II. 3.

Porreyne. MS. Ed. II. 17. Porrey Chapeleyn, 29.


Quare. 5. It seems to mean to quarter, or to square, to cut to pieces
however, and may be the same as to _dyce_. 10. 60. Dice at this time
were very small: a large parcel of them were found under the floor of
the hall of one of the Temples, about 1764, and were so minute as to
have dropt at times through the chinks or joints of the boards. There
were near 100 pair of ivory, scarce more than two thirds as large as
our modern ones. The hall was built in the reign of Elizabeth. To

_quare_ is from the Fr. quarrer; and _quayre_ or _quaire_, subst. in
Chaucer, Skelton, p. 91. 103. is a book or pamphlet, from the paper
being in the quarto form. See Annal. Dunstap. p. 215, Ames, Typ.
Antiq. p. 3. 9. Hence our quire of paper. The later French wrote
_cahier_, _cayer_, for I presume this may be the same word. Hence,
_kerve hem to dyce_, into small squares, 12. _Dysis_, MS. Ed. 15.

Quybibes. 64. Quibibz. MS. Ed. 54. alibi. Cubebs.

Quentlich. 162. keyntlich, 189. nicely, curiously. Chaucer. v.

Quayle. 162. perhaps, cool. it seems to mean fail or miscarry. Lel.
Coll. VI. p. II. sink or be dejected, p. 41. See Junius, v. Quail.

Queynchehe. 173. f. queynch. but qu.


R. and its vowel are often transposed. v. Bryddes, brennyng, Crudds,
Poumegarnet, &c.

Rapes. 5. Turneps. Lat. _Rapa_, or _Rapum_. vide Junium in voce.

Ryse. 9. 194. Rys, 36. alibi. MS. Ed. 14. Ryys, 192. the Flower, 37.
Rice. Fr. Ris. Belg. Riis.

Roo. 14. Roe, the animal.

Rede. 21. alibi, red. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: read].

Roost. 30. alibi, rowsted, 175. substantive, 53. to rost. Belg.

Rether. Ms. Ed. 43. a beast of the horned kind.

Ramme. 33. to squeeze. but qu.

Rennyns. 65. perhaps, _rennyng_, i. e. thin, from _renne_, to run.
Leland Itin. I. p. 5, 6. alibi. Skelton, p. 96. 143. alibi. indeed
most of our old authors. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 287, 288. Chaucer.

Ruayn. v. Chese.

Rape. 83. a dish with no turneps in it. Quare if same as _Rapil_,
Holme III. p. 78. Rapy, MS. Ed. 49.

Resmolle. 96. a dish. v. ad loc.

Ryal. 99. _ryallest_. Proem. royal. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 250. 254. VI. p.
5. bis. 22. Chaucer. v. Rial.

Rote. 100. Root. _Rotys_, MS. Ed. 32. Chaucer. Junius, v. Root.

Roo Broth. MS. Ed. 53.

Roche. 103. the fish. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6.

Rygh. 105. a fish. perhaps the Ruffe.

Rawnes. 125. Roes of fish. _Lye_ in Junius. v. Roan.

Rest. MS. Ed. rustied, of meat. Restyn, restyng. No. 57. Rustiness.
Junius. v. Restie.

Rasyols. 152. a dish. _Ransoles_. Holme III. p. 84.

Reyn. Ms. Ed. 57. Rain. Chaucer.

Rysshews. 182. name of a dish. qu.

Rew de Rumsey. MS. Ed. 44.

Ryne hem on a Spyt. 187. run them on a spit.

Rosty. MS. Ed. 44. rost.

Rounde. 196. round. French.

Rosee. 52. a dish. v. ad loc.

Resenns. 100. Raysons, 114. Raisins. used of Currants, 14. v. ad loc.
_Reysons_, _Reysins_. MS. Ed. II. 23. 42. _Rassens_ Pottage, is in
the second course at archp. Nevill's Feast.


Spine. v. Spynee.

Sue forth. 3. et passim. serue. 6. 21. From this short way of writing,
and perhaps speaking, we have our _Sewers_, officers of note, and
_sewingeis_, serving, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 291. unless mis-written or
mis-printed for _shewinge_.

Slype. II. slip or take off the outer coat. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon:

Skyrwates. 5. 149. Skirrits or Skirwicks.

Savory. 6. Sauuay. 30. 63. Sawey. 172.

Self. 13. same, made of itself, as self-broth, 22. the owne broth,
122. MS. Ed. 5. 7. Chaucer.

Seth. passim. MS. Ed. I, 2. Chaucer, to seeth. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon:
seothan]. Seyt. MS. Ed. I. to strain. 25. 27.

Smite and smyte. 16. 21. 62. cut, hack. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: smitan].

Sode. v. Ysode.

Storchion. MS. Ed. II. 12. v. Fitz-Stephen. p. 34.

Sum. 20. sumdell, 51. somdel, 171. some, a little, some part. Chaucer
has _sum_, and _somdele_. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: sum].

Saunders. 20. used for colouring. MS. Ed. 34. v. Northumb. Book, p.
415. Sandall wood. The translators of that very modern book the
Arabian Nights Entertainments, frequently have _Sanders_ and Sandal
wood, as a commodity of the East.

Swyne. 146. alibi. Pork or Bacon. MS. Ed. 3. Bacon, on the contrary,
is sometimes used for the animal. Old Plays, II. p. 248. Gloss. ad X
Script. in v.

See. MS. Ed. 56. Sea. Chaucer.

Sawge. 29. _Sauge_, 160. MS. Ed. 53. Sage. _Pigge en Sage_. E. of
Devon's Feast.

Shul. 146. schul. MS. Ed. 4. should, as No. 147. schulle, schullyn.
MS. Ed. 3. 7.

Sawse Madame. 30. qu. Sauce.

Sandale. MS. Ed. 34.

Sawse Sarzyne. 84. v. ad loc.

Serpell. 140. wild Thyme. _Serpyllum_.

Sawse blancke. 136.

Sawse noyre. 137. 141.

Sawse verde. 140.

Sow. 30. to sew, _suere_. also 175. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: siwian].

Stoppe. 34. 48. to stuff.

Swyng. 39. 43. alibi. MS. Ed. 20. 25. alibi. to shake, mix. A. S.
[Anglo-Saxon: swengan].

Sewe. 20. 29. 40. Sowe. 30. 33. alibi. MS. Ed. 38. Chaucer. Liquor,
Broth, Sous. Wiclif. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: sea]. v. Lye in 2d alphabet.

Schyms. MS. Ed. 38. Pieces.

Stondyng. 45, 46. 7. stiff, thick.

Smale. 53. alibi. small. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 194.

Spynee. 57. v. ad loc.

Straw. 58. strew. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: streawian].

Sklyse. 59. a Slice, or flat Stick for beating any thing. Junius. v.

Siryppe. 64. v. ad loc.

Styne. 66. perhaps to close. v. ystyned. A. S. tynan.

Stere. 67. 145. to stir. Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: styrian].

Sithen. 68. ssithen, 192. then. Chaucer. v. seth and sithe. A. S.
[Anglo-Saxon: sieean]. sithtyn, sethe, seth, syth. MS. Ed. _then_.

Salat. 76 a Sallad. Saladis, Sallads. Chaucer. Junius, v. Salad.

Slete Soppes. 80. slit. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: slitan].

Spryng. 85. to sprinkle. Wiclif. v. sprenge. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon:

Samoun. 98. Salmon. So Lel. Coll. VI. p. 16, 17. Fr. _Saumon_.

Stepid. 109, 110. steeped, _Frisiis_, stippen.

Sex. 113. 176. Six. A. S.

Sool. 119. _Solys_, 133. Soale, the fish.

Schyl oysters. 121. to shell them. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: scyll], a

Sle. 126. to kill. _Scle_, Chaucer, and _slea_. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon:

Sobre Sawse. 130.

Sowpes. 82. 129. Sops. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: sop]. dorry. MS. Ed. II. 6.

Spell. 140. qu.

Stary. MS. Ed. 32. stir.

Swannes. 143. Pye, 79. Cygnets. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5.

Sonne. MS. Ed. 56. Sun. Chaucer.

Sarse, and _a Sarse_. 145. a Sieve or Searse.

Souple. 152. supple. _sople_, Chaucer; also _souple_. Fr.

Stewes. 157. 170. Liquor. to stue, 186. a term well known at this day.

Sars. 158. 164. Error perhaps for _Fars_. 167. 169. 172.

Sawcyster. 160. perhaps, a Saussage. from Fr. _Saucisse_.

Soler. MS. Ed. 56. a solar or upper floor. Chaucer.

Sawgeat. 161. v. ad loc.

Skymour. 162. a Skimmer.

Salwar. 167. v. Calwar.

Sarcyness. MS. Ed. 54. v. Sawse.

Syve, Seve. MS. Ed. II. 17, 18. a Sieve, v. Hersyve.

Southrenwode. 172. Southernwood.

Sowre. 173. sour. _souir_, Chaucer.

Stale. 177. Stalk. Handle. used now in the North, and elsewhere; as a
fork-stale; quare a crasis for a fork's tail. Hence, Shaft of an
Arrow. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 13. Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: stele], or
[Anglo-Saxon: stela].

Spot. MS. Ed. 57. Sprinkle.

Sachus. 178. a dish. v. ad loc.

Sachellis. 178. Bags. Satchells.

Spynoches. 180. Spinages. Fr. Espinars in plural. but we use it in
the singular. Ital. Spinacchia.

Sit. 192. adhere, and thereby to burn to it. It obtains this sense
now in the North, where, after the potage has acquired a most
disagreeable taste by it, it is said to be _pot-sitten_, which in
Kent and elsewhere is expressed by being _burnt-to_.

Sotiltees. Proem. Suttlety. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. seq. See No. 189.
There was no grand entertainment without these. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226,
227. VI. 21. seq. made of sugar and wax. p. 31. and when they were
served, or brought in, _at first_, they seem to have been called
_warners_, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21. 23. VI. p. 226, 227. as giving
_warning_ of the approach of dinner. See Notes on Northumb. Book, p.
422, 423. and Mr. Pennant's Brit. Zool. p. 496. There are three
_sotiltes_ at the E. of Devon's Feast, a stag, a man, a tree. Quere
if now succeeded by figures of birds, &c. made in lard, and jelly, or
in sugar, to decorate cakes.

Sewyng. Proem. following. Leland Coll. IV. p. 293. Chaucer. Fr.


Spete. MS. Ed. 28. Spit. made of hazel, 58. as Virg. Georg. II. 396.

States. Proem. Persons.

Scher. MS. Ed. 25. sheer, cut. Chaucer. v. Shere.

Schyveris. MS. Ed. 25. II. 27. Shivers. Chaucer. v. Slivere.

Schaw. MS. Ed. 43. shave.


Thurgh. 3. alibi. thorough. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: eurh]. _thorw_. MS.
Ed. II.

Tansey. 172. Herb, vide Junii Etymol.

Trape, Traup. 152. alibi. Pan, platter, dish. from Fr.

To gedre. 14. to gydre, 20. to gyder, 39. to geyder, 53. to gider, 59.
to gyd, 111. to gedre, 145. So variously is the word _together_ here
written. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: togaeere].

Tredure. 15. name of Cawdel. v. ad loc.

To. 30. 17. MS. Ed. 33. 42. too; and so the Saxon, Hence to to. 17. v.
ad loc. Also, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 181. 206. VI. p. 36. _To_ is _till_,
MS. Ed. 26. 34. _two_. II. 7. v. Unto.

Thyk. 20. a Verb, to grow thick, as No. 67. thicken taken passively.
Adjective, 29. 52. _thik_, 57. _thykke_, 85. _thike_, Chaucer.

Teyse. 20. to pull to pieces with the fingers. v. ad loc. et Junius,
voce Tease. Hence teasing for carding wool with teasels, a specics of
thistle or instrument.

Talbotes. 23. qu. v. ad loc.

Tat. 30. that. as in Derbysh. _who's tat?_ for, who is that? Belg.

Thenne. 36. alibi. then. Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: eanne].

Thanne. 36. MS. Ed. 25. then. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: ean]. than. MS. Ed.

Teer. 36. Tear. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: teran].

To fore. 46. alibi. before. Hence our _heretofore_. Wiclif. Chaucer.

A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: toforan].

Thynne. 49. MS. Ed. 15. thin. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: einn].

Tarlettes. 50. afterwards _Tartletes_, rectius; and so the Contents.
_Tortelletti_. Holme. p. 85. v. Tartee. Godwin, de Prasul. p. 695.
renders _Streblita_; et v. Junius, voce Tart.

Thise. 53. alibi. these.

Take. 56. taken. Chaucer.

Thridde. 58. 173. alibi. Third, per metathesin. Chaucer. Thriddendele,
67. Thriddel, 102. 134. _Thredde_, MS. Ed. II. 1. v. Junius, voce

To done. 68. done. _To_ seems to abound, vide Chaucer. v. _To_.

Turnesole. 68. colours _pownas_. vide ad loc.

Ther. 70. 74. they. Chaucer.

Ton tressis. 76. an herb. I amend it to _Ton cressis_, and explain it
Cresses, being the Saxon [Anglo-Saxon: tunkerse], or [Anglo-Saxons:
tuncarse]. See _Lye_, Dict. Sax. Cresses, so as to mean, _one of the

Turbut. 101.

Tried out. 117. drawn out by roasting. See Junius, v. Try.

Tweydel. 134. Twey, MS. Ed. 12. Chaucer. _Twy_ for _twice_ runs now
in the North. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: twa], two. [Anglo-Saxon dal], pars,

Talow. 159. Mutton Sewet. v. Junii Etym.

Thyes, Thyys. MS. Ed. 29, 30. Thighs.

Tartee. 164, 165. alibi. Tart. de Bry, 166. de Brymlent, 117. Tartes
of Flesh, 168. of Fish, 170. v. Tarlettes.

Towh. tough, thick. 173. See Chaucer, v. Tought. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon:

Tharmys. MS. Ed. 16. Rops, Guts.

There. 170. 177 where. Chaucer.

Thowche. MS. Ed. 48. touch.

To. 185. for. Hence, _wherto_ is _wherefore_. Chaucer.

Towayl. MS. Ed. II. 21. a Towel.

Thee. 189. thou, as often now in the North.

Temper. MS. Ed. 1. et sape. to mix.


Uppon. 85. alibi. upon.

Urchon. 176. Urchin, _Erinaceus_.

Unto. MS. Ed. 2. until. v. _To_. Chaucer.


Violet. 6. v. ad loc.

Verjous. 12. 48. veriaws. 154. verious. 15. Verjuice, Fr. Verjus. V.

Veel. 16. alibi. MS. Ed. 18. Veal.

Vessll. 29. a dish.

Vyne Grace. 61. a mess or dish. _Grees_ is the wild Swine. Plott,
Hist. of Staff. p. 443. Gloss. to Douglas' Virgil, v. Grisis. and to
Chaucer. v. Grys. Thoroton, p. 258. Blount, Tenures. p. 101. _Gresse_.
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 243. _Gres_. 248. Both pork and wine enter into the

Vyaunde Cypre. 97. from the Isle of Cyprus.

Vernage. 132. Vernaccia. a sort of Italian white-wine. In Pref. to
_Perlin_, p. xix. mis-written Vervage. See Chaucer. It is a sweet
wine in a MS. of Tho. Astle esq. p. 2.

Venyson. 135. often eaten with furmenty, E. of Devon's Feast, _in
brothe_. Ibid.

Verde Sawse. 140. it sounds _Green Sauce_, but there is no sorel;
sharp, sour Sauce. See Junius, v. Verjuice.

Vervayn. 172.


Wele. 1. 28. old pronunciation of _well_, now vulgarly used in
Derbysh. _wel_, 3. alibi. _wel smale_, 6. very small. v. Lel. Coll.
IV. p. 218. 220. Hearne, in Spelm. Life of Alfred. p. 96.

Wyndewe. 1. winnow. This pronunciation is still retained in
Derbyshire, and is not amiss, as the operation is performed by wind.
v. omnino, Junius. v. Winnow.

Wayshe, waissh, waische. 1. 5. 17. to wash. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon:

Whane, whan. 6. 23. 41. when. So Sir Tho. Elliot. v. Britannia.
Percy's Songs, I. 77. MS. Romance of Sir Degare vers. 134. A. S.
[Anglo-Saxon: hwanne]. wan, wanne. MS. Ed. 25. 38. when.

Wole. Proem. will. _wolt_. 68. wouldst. Chaucer, v. Wol.

Warly, Warliche. 20. 188. gently, warily. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: ware],
wary, prudent. Chaucer. v. Ware. Junius, v. Warie.

Wafrouns. 24. Wafers. Junius, v. Wafer.

With inne. 30. divisim, for within. So _with oute_, 33.

Welled. 52. v. ad loc. MS. Ed. 23.

Wete. 67. 161. wet, now in the North, and see Chaucer. A. S. [Anglo-
Saxon: wat].

Wry. 72. to dry, or cover. Junius, v. Wrie.

Wyn. MS. Ed. 22. alibi. Wine. v. Wyneger.

Wryng thurgh a Straynour. 81. 91. thurgh a cloth, 153. almandes with
fair water, 124. wryng out the water. Ibid. wryng parsley up with
eggs, 174. Chaucer, voce wrong, ywrong, and wrang. Junius, v. Wring.

Womdes, Wombes. 107. quare the former word? perhaps being falsely
written, it was intended to be obliterated, but forgotten, _Wombes_
however means _bellies_, as MS. Ed. 15. See Junius, voce _Womb_.

Wyneger. MS. Ed. 50. Vinegar. v. Wyn.

Wone. 107. _a deal_ or _quantity_. Chaucer. It has a contrary sense
though in Junius, v. Whene.

Whete. 116. Wete. MS. Ed. 1. II. 30. Wheat. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon:

Wastel. 118. white Bread. _yfarced_, 159. of it. MS. Ed. 30. II. 18.
Gloss. ad X Script. v. Simenellus. Chaucer; where we are referred to
Verstegan V. but _Wassel_ is explained there, and not _Wastel_;
however, see Stat. 51 Henry III. Hoveden, p. 738. and Junius' Etymol.

Wheyze. 150. 171. Whey. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: hwaz]. Serum Lactis. g
often dissolving into y. v. Junium, in Y.

Wynde it to balles. 152. make it into balls, turn it. Chaucer. v.
Wende. Junius, v. Winde.

Wallenotes. 157. Walnuts. See Junius, in voce.

Wose of Comfrey. 190. v. ad loc. Juice.

Wex. MS. Ed. 25. Wax.

Were. MS. Ed. 57. where.


Y. is an usual prefix to adjectives and participles in our old
authors. It came from the Saxons; hence ymynced, minced; yslyt, slit;
&c. _I_ is often substituted for it. V. Gloss. to Chaucer, and Lye
in Jun. Etym. v. I. It occurs perpetually for _i_, as ymynced, yslyt,
&c. and so in MS. Editoris also. Written z. 7. 18. alibi. used for
_gh_, 72. MS. Ed. 33. Chaucer. v. Z. Hence ynouhz, 22. enough. So MS.
Ed. passim. Quere if _z_ is not meant in MSS for g or _t_ final.
Dotted, [Anglo-Saxon: y(1)], after Saxon manner, in MS. Ed. as in Mr.
Hearne's edition of Robt. of Gloucester.

Ycorve. 100, 101. cut in pieces. icorvin, 133. Gloss. to Chaucer. v.
_Icorvin_, and _Throtycorve_.

Zelow. 194. _yolow_. MS. Ed. 30. yellow. A. S. [Anglo-Saxon: zealuwe]
and [Anglo-Saxon: zelew].

Yolkes. 18. i. e. of eggs. Junius, v. Yelk.

Ygrond. v. Gronden.

Yleesshed. 18. cut it into slices. So, _lesh_ it, 65. 67. _leach_ is
to slice, Holme III. p. 78. or it may mean to _lay in the dish_, 74.
81. or distribute, 85. 117.

Ynouhz. 22. ynowh, 23. 28. ynowh, 65. ynow. MS. Ed. 32. Enough.
Chaucer has _inough_.

Yfer. 22. 61. id est _ifere_, together. _Feer_, a Companion. Wiclif,
in _Feer_ and _Scukynge feer_. Chaucer. v. Fere, and Yfere. Junius, v.

Yfette. Proem. put down, written.

Yskaldid. 29. scalded.

Ysode. 29. _isode_, 90. _sodden_, 179. boiled. MS. Ed. II. 11.
Chaucer. all from to seeth.

Ysope. 30. 63. Ysop. MS. Ed. 53. the herb Hyssop. Chaucer. v. Isope.
Yforced. v. forced.

Yfasted. 62. qu.

Zif, zyf. MS. Ed. 37. 39. if. also give, II. 9. 10.

Ystyned, istyned. 162. 168. to _styne_, 66. seems to mean to close.

Yteysed. 20. pulled in pieces. v. ad loc. and v. Tease.

Ypaunced. 62. perhaps pounced, for which see Chaucer.

Yfonndred. 62. _ifonded_, 97. 101. _yfondyt_, 102. poured, mixed,
dissolved. v. _found_. Fr. fondu.

Yholes. 37. perhaps, hollow.

Ypared. 64. pared.

Ytosted, itosted. 77. 82. toasted.

Iboiled. 114. boiled.

Yest. 151. Junius, v. Yeast.

Igrated. 153. grated.

Ybake. 157. baked.

Ymbre. 160. 165. Ember.

Ypocras. how made, 191. Hippocras. wafers used with it. Lel. Coll. IV.
p. 330. VI. p. 5, 6. 24. 28. 12. and dry toasts, Rabelais IV. c. 59.
_Joly Ypocras_. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. VI. p. 23. Bishop Godwin
renders it _Vinum aromaticum_. It was brought both at beginning of
splendid entertainments, if Apicius is to be underslood of it. Lib. I.
c. 1. See Lister, ad loc. and in the middle before the second course;
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. and at the end. It was in use at St. John's
Coll. Cambr. 50 years ago, and brought in at Christmas at the close
of dinner, as anciently most usually it was. It took its name from
_Hippocrates' sleeve_, the bag or strainer, through which it was
passed. Skinner, v. Claret; and Chaucer. or as Junius suggests,
because strained _juxta doctrinam Hippocratis_. The Italians call it
_hipocrasso_. It seems not to have differed much from _Piment_, or
Pigment (for which see Chaucer) a rich spiced wine which was sold by
Vintners about 1250. Mr. Topham's MS. Hippocras was both white and
red. Rabelais, IV. c. 59. and I find it used for sauce to lampreys.
Ibid. c. 60.

There is the process at large for making ypocrasse in a MS. of my
respectable Friend Thomas Astle, esq. p. 2. which we have thought
proper to transcribe, as follows:

'To make Ypocrasse for lords with gynger, synamon, and graynes sugour,
and turefoll: and for comyn pepull gynger canell, longe peper, and
claryffyed hony. Loke ye have feyre pewter basens to kepe in your

pouders and your ypocrasse to ren ynne. and to vi basens ye muste
have vi renners on a perche as ye may here see. and loke your poudurs
and your gynger be redy and well paryd or hit be beton in to poudr.
Gynger colombyne is the best gynger, mayken and balandyne be not so
good nor holsom.... now thou knowist the propertees of Ypocras. Your
poudurs must be made everyche by themselfe, and leid in a bledder in
store, hange sure your perche with baggs, and that no bagge twoyche
other, but basen twoyche basen. The fyrst bagge of a galon, every on
of the other a potell. Fyrst do in to a basen a galon or ij of
redwyne, then put in your pouders, and do it in to the renners, and
so in to the seconde bagge, then take a pece and assay it. And yef
hit be eny thyng to stronge of gynger alay it withe synamon, and yef
it be strong of synamon alay it withe sugour cute. And thus schall ye
make perfyte Ypocras. And loke your bagges be of boltell clothe, and
the mouthes opyn, and let it ren in v or vi bagges on a perche, and
under every bagge a clene basen. The draftes of the spies is good for
sewies. Put your Ypocrase in to a stanche wessell, and bynde opon the
mouthe a bleddur strongly, then serve forthe waffers and Ypocrasse.'

F I N I S.

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